Cultivation Practices of 10 common Veggies : Better and Simple way to learn

Cultivation Practice in Field
Cultivation Practices in Field

As we know that vegetables are full of several types of Vitamins, minerals, Fibers and,  Carbohydrate. these all are helpful to our health; And These all we cover in Olericulture. In Olericulture we learn about all the varieties of vegetables and their cultivation Practices. For Exporting of Vegetables Please visit APEDA site [https://apeda.gov.in/apedawebsite/] ; Hope this may help you to Export.

Cultivation Practices mean to learn about all methods, Practices, and Information about Veggies from sowing to Harvesting. So, All the cultivation practices of 10 common Vegetables are describing Below-

Contents

Cultivation Practice of Potato

Introduction about Potato-

Potato

Potato is a root vegetable that is native to the country South America. Basically it is full of starch and belongs to the perennial family Solanaceae. Potato is Fourth major utilized food after Rice, Wheat, and Maize.

Botanical Classification-

  • Botanical name =  Solanum tuberosum
  • Kingdom = Plantae
  • Order = Solanales
  • Family = Solanaceae
  • Genus = Solanum
  • Species = S. tuberosum

Some Basic Information about cultivation Practice of Potato-

  • Chromosome no. = 48
  • % Share in India = 21 %
  • % Share in Production = 25.5 %
  • Origin = South America
  • Edible Part = Stem and Tuber
  • Acid Present = Citric Acid
  • Aromatic Chain Contains = Di methyl Pyrazine
  • Optimum Temperature = 8 to 25°C
  • Germination = Through Cross Pollination
  • Water Requirement = Moderate
  • Root depth = 18-24 inches
  • Largest Producer in World =
  • Largest Producer State in India =
  • Potatoes are grow in All state except Kerala.
  • Potato Tuber Dormancy = 8 to 10 weeks
  • Potatoes are grow better in Alluvial Soil.
  • Most Essential Nutrients = Nitrogen
  • Carbohydrate % = 22 %
  • Relative Humidity = 85 %
  • Recommended Cultivars = Russet Burbank Potato; Ratte Potato; Bintje Potato; Kerr’s Pink; Vitelotte King Edward.
  • Yield = 44.3 tonnes per hectare.

Varieties of Potato-

  • Early Maturing = Kufri Ashoka, Kufri Kavkar, Kufri Jawahar.
  • Late Maturing = Kufri Deva, Kufri Megha.
  • Mild Maturing  = Kufri Lalima, Kufri Sindhri, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Pukhraj, Kufri Giriraj.
  • Clonal Selection = Kufri Red, Kufri Safed.
  • Hybrid = Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Jeevan, Kufri Kuber.

Transplanting-

  • Seed Rate = 20 to 25 Q/ha
  • Sowing Distance = Row to Row = 12 to 18 inch
  • Sowing Time = October to November
  • Sowing Depth = 1 inch
  • Manure and Fertilizer = phosphate and potassium are more beneficial to potato growth. And [cow dung + Mustard Oil Cake (MOC) +N+P2O5+K2O]

Storage-

Storage facility is required for safe foods for a long Time. so we need to keep the potatoes alive and slow the natural process of spoilage. One Important things is the storage area should be dark, ventilated well.

Storage Term-

  • For long-term storage, maintained the temperatures near 4 °C  that is suitable for Potato.
  • For short-term storage, temperature of about 7 to 10 °C  are suitable for Potato.

Harvest-

At harvesting time, gardeners usually dig up potatoes with a long-handled. Harvesting of Potato is done before the temperature rise from 30°C. It is done at the Last of January. Potatoes are ready for Harvesting after 80 to 120 Days of planting.

Pests and Diseases-

  • Potatoes Disease= Rhizoctonia, Black leg, Powdery Mildew, Powdery Scab, and Leafroll Virus.
  • Pests = Potato aphid, beet leaf hoppers, Thrips and mites.

Cultivation Practice of Tomato

Introduction about Tomato-

Tomato

Tomato is a Reddish colored edible vegetable that is native to the country South America and Central America. Basically it is full of Carbohydrates and Water. And belongs to the perennial family Solanaceae. Tomato is no. 1 Processed vegetables in world.

Botanical Classification-

  • Botanical name =  Lycopersicon esculentum
  • Kingdom = Plantae
  • Order = Solanales
  • Family = Solanaceae
  • Genus = Solanum
  • Species = S. lycopersicum

Some Basic Information about cultivation Practice of Tomato –

  • Chromosome no. = 24
  • % Share in India = 9.4 %
  • % Share in Production = 11.5 %
  • Origin = South America
  • Edible Part = Fruits
  • Acid Present = citric and malic acid
  • Aromatic Chain Contains = phenylacetaldehyde and 2-phenylethanol
  • Optimum Temperature = 20-25° C
  • Germination = Through Self pollinated
  • Water Requirement = 400 to 600 mm
  • Root depth = 18-48 inches
  • Largest Producer in World = China
  • Largest Producer State in India = Andhra Pradesh
  • Staking is followed in indeterminate type of Tomato.
  • Excessive rain adversely affect its fruits and flowers.
  • Most Essential Nutrients = Carbohydrates,
  • Relative Humidity = 86–95%
  • Recommended Cultivars = Black Krim, Big Beef, Better Boy, Early girl, Cherokee Purple.
  • Yield = 20-25 t/ha.

Varieties of Tomato-

  • Selection = Sonali, Arka Vikas, Pant Bahar, Arka Saurabh
  • Hybrid = Pusa Early Dwarf, Pusa Ruby, Marglobe, Pusa Red Plum.

Transplanting-

  • Seed Rate = 125 to 175 g/ha
  • Sowing Distance = Seed to seed= 1 ft & Row to Row= 2.5 ft
  • Sowing Time = June to August

Storage-

Store green tomatoes at room temperature in a cellar to have fresh tomatoes later.

Pests and Diseases-

  • Disease= Early blight, Septoria leaf spot, Late blight, and Buckeye rot
  • Pests = russet mites, bud worms

Cultivation Practice of Onion

Introduction about Onion-

Onion

Onion is a vegetable that is native to the country South America. Basically it is full of Vitamin B1, Calcium and belongs to the perennial family Amaryllidaceae. Onion are also known as the bulb onion or common onion. Onion is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium. It is look like Garlic or Scallion type vegetables.

Botanical Classification-

  • Botanical name =  Allium cepa
  • Kingdom = Plantae
  • Order = Asparagales
  • Family = Amaryllidaceae
  • Genus = Allium
  • Species = A. cepa

Some Basic Information about cultivation Practice of Onion-

  • Chromosome no. = 16
  • % Share in India = 12.8 %
  • % Share in Production = 11.9 %
  • Origin = Central Asia
  • Edible Part = Bulb
  • Acid Present = glutamic acid, citric acid, malic acid and oxalic acid
  • Aromatic Chain Contains = Allyl Propyl disulphide
  • Optimum Temperature = 20-25° C
  • Germination = Through Cross Pollination
  • Water Requirement = 600 to 800 mm
  • Root depth = 8-12 inches
  • Largest Producer in World = China
  • Largest Producer State in India = Maharashtra
  • Most Essential Nutrients = Vitamin B1, Calcium and Carbohydrate.
  • Relative Humidity = 65-70%
  • Recommended Cultivars = Ailsa Craig, Italian Torpedo, Red Burgundy, Utah Yellow Sweet Spanish.
  • Yield = 25-30 t/ha (rabi season ) while 0.7-1.0 t/ha (under rainfed conditions).

Varieties of Onion –

  • Selection = Pusa Ratnar, Arka Pragati, Arka Bindu, Patna Red
  • Selfing  Variety = Pusa Madhvi
  • Hybrid = Arka Pitambar, Arka Lalima

Transplanting-

  • Seed Rate = Rabi =10 to 12 kg/ha & Kharif= 12 to 15 kg/ha
  • Sowing Distance = Seed to Seed = 4ft & Row to Row = 6 ft
  • Sowing Time = May to June
  • Manure and Fertilizer = nitrogen-based fertilizer for example ammonium sulfate or ammonium nitrate, And Farmyard manure should be applied

Storage-

onions are Stored in a dry, cool, and well-ventilated storage area. temperature of storage should be 45-55°F.  And One things are most Important, that is onions in storage are not wrapped in plastic bags.

Harvest-

Onions are best cultivated in fertile soils and well-drained also. Sandy loam are good for better growing of Onion. Onion are Harvested after 100 to 120 days planting, and Harvesting of Onion depends on various cultivar.

Pests and Diseases-

  • Onion Disease= Botrytis leaf blight, downy mildew
  • Pests = onion smut, pink root, Botrytis leaf blight, neck rot, downy mildew

Cultivation Practice of Garlic

Introduction about Garlic-

Garlic

Garlic is a root vegetable that is native to the country Central Asia. Basically it is full of Potassium & Phosphorus and belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae.

Botanical Classification-

  • Botanical name =  Allium sativum
  • Kingdom = Plantae
  • Order = Asparagales
  • Family = Amaryllidaceae
  • Genus = Allium
  • Species = A. Sativum

Some Basic Information about cultivation Practice of Garlic-

  • Chromosome no. = 16
  • % Share in India = 7.3 %
  • % Share in Production = 21.1 %
  • Origin = Central Asia
  • Edible Part = Cloves
  • Acid Present = sulfenic acid and Allicin
  • Aromatic Chain Contains = allyl methyl sulfide
  • Optimum Temperature = 20-25° C
  • Germination = Through Cross Pollination
  • Water Requirement = 425 mm
  • Root depth = 12-18 inches
  • Largest Producer in World = China
  • Largest Producer State in India = Rajasthan
  • Most Essential Nutrients = Potassium, Phosphorus, Vitmin C
  • Relative Humidity = 65-70%
  • Recommended Cultivars = Calabrian Red, Chesnok Red, French Pink.
  • Yield = 40 to 100 Q/ha

Varieties of Garlic-

  1. Sweta
  2. Yamuna safed
  3. G-282
  4. Agrifound Parvati

Transplanting-

  • Seed Rate = 400-500 kg/ha
  • Sowing Distance = Seed to seed =7.5 cm  and rows to rows = 15 cm
  • Sowing Depth = 3 to 5 cm
  • Sowing Time = September to first week of October
  • Manure and Fertilizer = 100-200 kg FYM;  Azospirillum and phosphorus soluble Bio fertilizers.

Storage-

Light and moisture both are the enemies of garlic because they both cause mold on Garlic. Dark place is the Better option to store garlic at room temperature with air circulation.

Harvest-

Garlic become mature and Ready to harvest in 165-170 days after Planting. Generally, Garlic is Harvested from Field in the month of March – April.

Pests and Diseases-

  • Disease= Basal Rot, White Rot, Downy Mildew, Botrytis Rot and Penicillium Decay.
  • Pests = Garlic Bug and Thrip.

Cultivation Practice of Okra

Introduction about Okra-

Okra

Okra is a straight and hard vegetable that is native to the country Africa. Basically it is full of Calcium & Vitamin A and belongs to the family Malvaceae.

Botanical Classification-

  • Botanical name =  Abelmoschus esculentus
  • Kingdom = Plantae
  • Order = Malvales
  • Family = Malvaceae
  • Genus = Abelmoschus
  • Species = A. esculentus

Some Basic Information about cultivation Practice of Okra –

  • Chromosome no. = 72
  • Origin = Africa
  • Edible Part = leaves, flowers and seeds
  • Acid Present = Citric acid
  • Aromatic Chain Contains = polyhydroxylated aromatic aldehyde
  • Optimum Temperature = 25-30° C
  • Germination = through often cross Pollinated
  • Water Requirement = 547 mm
  • Root depth = 16 inches
  • Largest Producer in World = India
  • Largest Producer State in India = Andhra Pradesh
  • Most Essential Nutrients = Potassium, Calcium and Vitamin A.
  • Relative Humidity =  90–95%
  • Recommended Cultivars = Burgundy, Cajun Delight, Clemson Spineless, Cow Horn.
  • Yield = 12.86 t/ha

Varieties of Okra-

  • Selection = Pusa Makhmali, Gujarati Bhendi no. 1.
  • Introduction = Pekins Long Green
  • Hybrid = Pusa Sawani, Arka Anamica, Arka abhay
  • Private Sector Hybrid = Panshali, Supriya, Varsha
  • Mutant = EMS-8

Transplanting-

  • Seed Rate = 18 to 22 kg/ha
  • Sowing Distance = Seed to Seed = 12 inches & Row to Row =18 inches
  • Sowing Time = February to March.
  • Manure and Fertilizer = 20-25 t/ha of FYM, urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) and ammonium sulphate.

Storage-

  • For Short Term; Okra is Stored in the refrigerator for 2 to 3 days.
  • For longer Term; okra may be frozen with Trim the end of stem,  it means do not cut its pod when we trimmed.

Harvest-

Okra are ready to harvest after 45-60 days of sowing or Planting.

Pests and Diseases-

  • Disease= Damping-off, Verticillium wilt, Powdery mildew.
  • Pests = Earias vittella, Helicoverpa armigera, Sylepta derogata, leafhopper, whitefly, aphid.

Cultivation Practice of Beans

Introduction about Beans –

Beans

A Bean is a vegetable of edible part is seed, and that is native to the Central Asia. Basically it is full of Proteins and Fibers & belongs to the perennial family Fabaceae. Beans are used as vegetables for human or also animal’s food.

Botanical Classification-

  • Botanical name = Phaseolus vulgaris
  • Kingdom = Plantae
  • Order = Fabales
  • Family = Fabaceae

Some Basic Information about cultivation Practice of Beans-

  • Chromosome no. = 22
  • Origin = Central Asia
  • Edible Part = Seeds
  • Acid Present =  p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, coumaric acid.
  • Aromatic Chain Contains = pyrazines
  • Optimum Temperature = 80° F
  • Germination = Through Self Pollinated
  • Water Requirement = Low
  • Root depth = 24-36 inches
  • Largest Producer in World = Myanmar
  • Largest Producer State in India = Gujarat
  • Most Essential Nutrients = Proteins, Iron, and Fibres
  • Relative Humidity = 30 %
  • Recommended Cultivars = snap-bush green beans, bush yellow beans, lima beans.
  • Yield = 100 – 120 Q/ha

Varieties of Beans-

  • Introduction = Bonneville, Earley Badger, Arkel, Lincoln.
  • Selection = Arka Ajit, Asauji, Harbhajan, Pant upkar.

Transplanting-

  • Seed Rate = About 50-75 kg/ha
  • Sowing Distance = row-to-row = 40-50 cm & Seed to Seed = 10 cm
  • Sowing Time = October to mid-March
  • Manure and Fertilizer = 5-10-10 as N-P-K fertilizer, bone meal.

Harvest-

Early variety of Beans are ready to harvest after 60 days of Sowing But late variety of Beans are ready to Harvest after 90 to 100 days of sowing.

Pests and Diseases-

  • Disease= necrotic (brown) spots, bacterial brown spot.
  • Pests =  pollen beetles, flower thrips, pod borers, pod bugs, etc.

Cultivation Practice of Cucumber

Introduction about Cucumber-

cucumber

cucumber is a most widely creeper vegetable that is native to the country India. Basically it is full of Vitamin A &C and belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. Cucumber consists of 95 % water.

Botanical Classification-

  • Botanical name = Cucumis sativus
  • Kingdom = Plantae
  • Order = Cucurbitales
  • Family = Cucurbitaceae
  • Genus = cucumis
  • Species = c. sativus

Some Basic Information about cultivation Practice of Cucumber-

  • Chromosome no. = 14
  • Origin = India
  • Edible Part = fruit
  • Acid Present = citric acid
  • Aromatic Chain Contains = Nonadienal
  • Optimum Temperature = 18°C  (night) and 28°C (day)
  • Germination = Through cross pollination
  • Water Requirement = Moderate
  • Root depth = 36-48 inches
  • Largest Producer in World = China
  • Largest Producer State in India = Haryana
  • It is a thermophilic and frost susceptible crop.
  • Most Essential Nutrients = vitamin K, vitamin C, magnesium,  potassium, manganese and vitamin A.
  • Relative Humidity = 60-70% (day) and 70-90% (at night).
  • Recommended Cultivars = Bush varieties, Vining varieties.
  • Yield = 55 Q/ac

Varieties of cucumber –

  • Slicing = European cucumber, telegraph cucumber
  • Selection = Sheetal
  • Hybrid = Himangi, Phule shubhangi
  • Public Sector Hybrid =Pusa Sanyog.

Transplanting-

  • Seed Rate = 2.5 to 3.5 kg/ha
  • Sowing Distance = (a) seed to seed = 12 inches (b) Row to Row = 12 inches
  • Sowing Time = February – march
  • Sowing Depth = 0.5 inch
  • Manure and Fertilizer = Well-aged compost and Nitrogen Based Fertilizer.

Harvest-

Ready to harvest after 45 days of sowing.

Pests and Diseases-

  • Disease= powdery mildew, bacterial wilt, cucumber beetles, cucumber mosaic.
  • Pests = striped cucumber beetle, spotted cucumber beetle, aphids. Minor pests: squash bug.

Cultivation Practice of Pumpkin

Introduction about Pumpkin-

Pumpkin

A Pumpkin is a round shaped vegetable that is native to the country Mexico. Basically it is full of Magnesium & Calcium.

Botanical Classification-

  • Botanical name = Cucurbia species
  • Kingdom = Plantae

Some Basic Information about cultivation Practice of Pumpkin-

  • Chromosome no. = 40
  • Origin = Mexico, Peru
  • Edible Part = Fruits
  • Acid Present = linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid.
  • Carbon Chain Contains = amino, and hydroxy substituents
  • Optimum Temperature = 85 degree (in day),  20-degree (in nighttime).
  • Water Requirement = 160 mm
  • Root depth = 80 to 100 cm
  • Largest Producer in World = China
  • Largest Producer State in India =Oddisa
  • Most Essential Nutrients = Vitamin C and Vitamin A; Magnesium and Calcium.
  • Relative Humidity = 60%
  • Recommended Cultivars = Red kuri squash, Turban Squash, Tromboncino.
  • Yield = 65 to 75 Q/ha

Transplanting-

  • Seed Rate = 5 to 6 kg/ha
  • Sowing Distance = Seed to seed = 24 to 48 inches.
  • Sowing Time = January to March
  • Manure and Fertilizer = nitrogen-heavy fertilizer & a phosphorus-heavy fertilizer

Harvest-

Ready to harvest after about three months after sowing.

Pests and Diseases-

  • Disease=  Powdery mildew, downy mildew, white speck, gummy stem blight
  • Pests =  Vine borers, Squash bugs.

Cultivation Practice of Bottle Gourd

Botanical Classification-

Bottle Gourd
  • Botanical name =  Lagenaria siceraria
  • Kingdom = Plantae
  • Order = Cucurbitales
  • Family = Cucurbitaceae
  • Genus = Lagenaria
  • Species =L. siceraria

Some Basic Information about cultivation Practice of Bottle gourd-

  • Chromosome no. = 22
  • Origin = South Africa and India
  • Edible Part = Fruit
  • Acid Present =campesterol, aerpene byonolic acid
  • Optimum Temperature = 24–270 C
  • Germination = Through Self Pollinated
  • Water Requirement = 30-45 cm
  • Root depth = 0.5 inch
  • Largest Producer in World =India
  • Largest Producer State in India = Bihar
  • Most Essential Nutrients = Carbohydrate and Calcium.
  • Relative Humidity = 93%
  • Recommended Cultivars = Pusa aveen, Pusa Hybrid-3 and Pusa Meghdoot
  • Yield = 100 to 120 Q/ha

Varieties of Bottle gourd-

  •  Pusa Summer Prolific Round
  • Pusa Manjri
  •  Punjab Round
  • Pusa Summer Prolific round

Transplanting-

  • Seed Rate = 3 to 4 kg/ha
  • Sowing Distance = Seed to Seed = 1 ft
  • Sowing Time = February – March
  • Manure and Fertilizer = NPK, FYM, vermicompost and poultry manure mixture

Harvest-

They are ready to harvest 60-120 days after sowing depending on the variety. Harvest gourds when vines are dry.

Pests and Diseases-

  • Disease= Downy mildew, damping off and root rots, bacterial wilt, angular leaf spot
  • Pests = Leaf folder. Yellow beetle. Spider mites and Aphids.

Cultivation Practice of Bitter Gourd

Botanical Classification-

cultivation Practice of bitter gourd
Bitter gourd
  • Botanical name =  Momordica charantia
  • Kingdom = Plantae
  • Order = Cucurbitales
  • Family = Cucurbitaceae
  • Genus = Momordica
  • Species = M. charantia

Some Basic Information about cultivation Practice of Bitter gourd-

  • Chromosome no. = 22
  • Origin = Southeast Asia
  • Edible Part = Fruit
  • Acid Present = Alpha-eleostearic acid
  • Optimum Temperature = 24–27° C.
  • Germination = Through self Pollinated
  • Water Requirement = About 42 – 127 cm
  • Largest Producer in World = China
  • Largest Producer State in India = Chattisgarh
  • Most Essential Nutrients =  iron, magnesium, potassium and vitamin C.
  • Relative Humidity = 78% to 92%
  • Recommended Cultivars = Coimbatore Long, VK-I (Priya), MDV- l, Pusa Vishesh.
  • Yield = 120 Q/ha

Varieties of Bitter gourd-

  • Pusa Do Mausmi
  • VK-1-Priya
  • MDV- l, etc.

Transplanting-

  • Seed Rate = 4 to 5.5 kg/ha
  • Sowing Distance = Seed to seed = 4 inches
  • Sowing Time = February – March
  • Manure and Fertilizer =  FYM (15-20 t/ha) ; 30-60 kg K2O; 50-100 kg. N

Harvest-

Bitter Gourd are ready to Harvest about 12 to 16 weeks after planting

Pests and Diseases-

  • Disease= yellow mosaic
  • Pests = cell sap, secretes honey dew, sooty mold

 

 

See Also


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It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog ecohillagri.com to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.

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