Water is a liquid material that is essential for our life. Chemically water is composed of Two chemical elements, that is Hydrogen and Oxygen. Water contains two molecules of Hydrogen and one molecule of Oxygen. we know that, water exist in gaseous, liquid, and solid states.
Human Body need water to perform their function properly. About 70 % of human body contains water and plants also contain approx 90 % water. As we need water; Similarly, crops also need water for proper growth and development or to perform the Basic Process of making Food (i.e. Photosynthesis Process). And The process to supplying of water to Field is referred as irrigation Process. The actual irrigation meaning is the process to supply the required amount of water to our Field for the growing of crops. And there are 4 method of irrigation used in field. that describe below in brief-
Generally, Water is also known as colorless Liquid while actually water has an blue color due to absorption of that color.
- 1 Irrigation meaning in simple Language –
- 2 Modes & Method Of Irrigation
- 3 Irrigation meaning in Traditional and Modern way
- 4 Irrigation Scheduling
- 5 Irrigation Requirement of Major Crops
- 6 Supply and Resources
- 7 Irrigation meaning in management Purpose
- 8 Limited water supply Condition
At Below, We discuss about Irrigation meaning, method of Irrigation and its importance in Agriculture-
Irrigation meaning in simple Language –
Simply the Irrigation meaning is – “The simple process in which we supply the required water to the field to fulfill the water requirement of the Crops.” Generally Irrigation meaning is the watering of land. Proper irrigation management may help farmers to enhance the yield of their crops. Sometime, Farmers also applied Nutrients to the crops via irrigation. Irrigation Provide required moisture to crops for many functions such as growth and development, Photosynthesis, germination, Production and so on.
Sources of Irrigation-
As we know that Irrigation meaning is the supply of Water. So we need a large source of water by which we can supply water to our field. so there are several sources of water for irrigation, such as- tube wells, wells, canals, ponds, lakes, dams,and most primary source is Rain water.
- Irrigation improves the groundwater storage as water.
- Irrigation Provide Moisture to Plants.
- It may increase the Yield of Crops.
- Irrigation water improves the water conditions in the soil.
- It also enhance the Physical Properties of Soil.
- Excess water may destroy the Root of Plants.
- Excess water in drains make infections.
Terminology comes under Irrigation meaning-
- Leaching = Leaching is the Process of Downward movement of Nutrients from the Root zone of Plant with the help Water.
- Seepage = Seepage is the Process of Horizontal Flow of Water in channel.
- Infiltration = It is the Process of downward movement of Water from the upper layer of Soil.
- Percolation = It is the Process of Vertical motion of Water in the Soil.
- Tensiometer = Also known as Irrometer. It is the Device which can measure the Soil moisture.
Modes & Method Of Irrigation
There are several modes of irrigation that are practiced by Farmers to supply the Water to the field. These modes are apply based on the different types of soils and climatic condition. Modes of irrigation is also known as Method of irrigation.
The modes of irrigation applied by farmers are described below-
- Surface Irrigation
- Sub surface Irrigation
- Sprinkler Irrigation
- Drip Irrigation
Lets Described all modes one by one-
That method of Irrigation in which we flooded the water over the field.
- Very Cheap.
- No more Technical skills are required.
- Excess water destroy the crop.
- It also affect Aeration Process.
Types of Surface Irrigation-
Surface Irrigation is further categorized into 5 types-
- Flooding method
- Check Basin method
- Ring Basin method
- Border Strip method
- Furrow method
Sub Surface Irrigation –
That method of Irrigation in which we can supply the water to the field by using underground whole water.
- Low Weeds are germinated.
- Decrease the Rate of Evaporation.
- Highly Maintenance is required.
- costly than Surface Irrigation.
The method of irrigation in which we sprinkle the water to Plants as spray or Rain is known as Sprinkler Irrigation.
- Approx all parts of plants get water uniformly.
- Reduce the Loss of Water.
- decrease the rate of Evaporation.
- More skill are Required.
That modes of irrigation, we supply the water on only Root Zone of plant. It is the best method of irrigation for All time.
- It save 70 to 80 % of water.
- Decrease the Rate of Evaporation.
- Yield Of Crops be increased 2 to 3 times more.
- Very Costly.
- High Maintenance.
- Required More Technical Skill.
Irrigation meaning in Traditional and Modern way
Irrigation meaning in traditionally –
Traditionally A farmer pulls out water from a source and carries to their fields. The main advantage of this method is that it is cheap and no more skills are needed. But actually it is poor due to the not uniformly distribution of water. Also, the chances loss of water. so in Traditional way, the Irrigation meaning is to supply water from Hand pump, Tube well, etc.
Irrigation meaning in Modern way-
In Modern way, Irrigation meaning is the Drip and Sprinkler Irrigation system. These are so costly but they are farmers friendly due to no more loss of water and enhancement of Yield of Crops.
Scheduling of irrigation is the simple technique which is used to determine the time and quantity of irrigation of water. Proper Scheduling of Irrigation may help us to increase the yield of crops with minimum soil damage and the higher water use efficiency. Better Scheduling helps Farmer to know about Irrigation meaning and method of Irrigation actually.
Some Basic Principles of Irrigation Scheduling are following-
1. Soil moisture = It means the amount of water present in Soil. Soil moisture present in Soil affect the Irrigation rate and its Scheduling.
2. Effective irrigation = Effective irrigation means the amount of water that actually reach in the root zone of Plants and plant take more nutrients from that water. mostly irrigation water is lost due to some reason, i.e. evaporation, percolation and Leaching. so we use Drip and sprinkler as irrigation method to save 60 to 70 % of water.
3. Root zone = Root zone is a zone or space around the Roots of Plant and Plants can able only to take in any nutrients from its Root zone.
4. Daily water use. Daily water usage mean the consumption of water by any Plants daily. Daily water use depends upon the growth rate of the plant and environmental conditions of the day.
An excellent guide to daily water usage is found by the evapo transpiration Rate data that from any meterological weather station.
5. Water holding capacity = Water holding capacity means the capability of plants to contain (hold) the amount of water. Plants take up 90 % of Water they need from atmospheric moisture and 10 % of water from the moisture present in Root zone.
Irrigation Requirement of Major Crops
Basically Irrigation meaning is to supply the water, and water is that component that we required in Irrigation. so, Irrigation requirement is defined as, “The quantity of water needed by a crop for their Proper growth under the conditions of field and Environmental condition of that place also .” And the Requirement of water to crops are fulfill by Two way i.e.,
- By Naturally such as precipitation.
- By artificially such as irrigation.
Factors affecting Irrigation Requirement-
There are some environmental a well as man made factors that affect Irrigation requirement to crops:
- Transpiration loss through leaves .
- Evaporation loss through soil surface.
- percolation loss in soil.
- Irrigation requirement in crops varies from place to place, from crop to crop.
- It also affect by agro-ecological variation and crop characters.
- some soil factors such as soil Texture, sowing Depth of crops
- Soil chemical composition.
- Irrigation Period.
|CROPS||THEIR WATER REQUIREMENT (mm)|
|Wheat||450 to 600|
|Rice||900 to 2500|
|Maize||500 to 800|
|Potato||500 to 700|
|Tomato||600 to 800|
|Pea||350 to 500|
|Onion||350 to 500|
|Citrus||900 to 1200|
|Grapes||500 to 1200|
|Garlic||350 to 400|
|Cabbage||350 to 800|
|Sorghum||450 to 600|
|Cotton||700 to 1300|
|Sugarcane||1500 to 2500|
Supply and Resources
(1) supply of Irrigation-
For supplying of irrigation to our field, we must need a source of Water. Rivers, lakes, and groundwater come under the common sources of water for supply of irrigation. The possibility of supply of irrigation as high when much water is available at the source. Availability of water may vary a lot over the year. the Irrigation supply depends upon the capacity of the source.
(2) Resources of irrigation-
Generally, Resources are the source or supply by which a something is produced for their utilization. here we talk about Resources of irrigation which means the source of Irrigation from which we can supply water to our field. because Irrigation meaning is to supply water to fields from a large source.
Irrigation resources are basically categorized into Three way-
- Irrigation water can come from ground water.
- Irrigation water can come from surface water.
- Irrigation water can come from non conventional sources.
Water from Groundwater are extracted by the help of wells and hand pump also; From surface water are withdraw from River, lakes and other natural resources And from Non conventional source like Drainage water, treated water, etc. Basically farmers withdraw water for irrigation Purpose from Tube well it means they Utilize Ground water for Irrigation.
Irrigation meaning in management Purpose
Irrigation meaning in Management Purpose or Irrigation management means to manage or authorize the irrigation system and their methods to use. It is so important because of some reason-
- it helps determine future of Irrigation system.
- Water level for irrigation is decrease time to time.
- It is most profitable way for sustainable production levels.
- Management helps to provide new principles and technology.
The simplest and basic irrigation water management tool is the equation:
QT = DA
Q = flow rate (ft³/s)
T = time (hrs.)
D = depth (inches)
A = area (acres)
Irrigation management in different Soil-
irrigation Management in sandy soil = Sandy soil does not contains more moisture like clay and other soil. and More than 95% of irrigated land in the world is irrigated by surface (Flooded ) method. so, sandy soils are affected by high erosion due to the lack of experience and skills in farmers. because due to this type of irrigation, Surface runoff and deep percolation occurs And irrigation efficiency be decrease. Hence Suitable method of Irrigation is required to Irrigate sandy soil and it may be helpful for improve irrigation efficiency.
Surface surface irrigation method is not useful for sandy soil because this soil has high infiltration rate. while sprinkle and drip irrigation methods are best option for Irrigation on the sandy soils because rate of surface runoff and deep percolation reduced.
irrigation Management in Poorly Drained soil = Soil characteristics play an important role in Supplying of water or Irrigation. we take an example of clay soil; the types of soil which has low water drainage capacity, that means it contains high moisture. And these type of soil does not required for more Irrigation water. so, we can supply water into clay soil by flood irrigation; then How we irrigate this soil- Sprinkler Irrigation is the best method of Irrigation to irrigate the field of clay soil. In Sprinkler irrigation, supplying of Water as rain or as spray.
irrigation Management in Saline and Alkaline soil = Saline soils are those soil that contains water soluble salts like chlorides, carbonates, and bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium in the surface of soil. Saline soils are Alkaline in nature, so they are called Alkaline Soil.
we can irrigate Saline soil with Some of the irrigation method that are- furrow irrigation, broad bed furrows, frequent sprinkler irrigation or light irrigation. The basic principle behind these methods to irrigate is – necessary in leaching requirement of this type of soil such that the salts present in soil are washed away from the root zone or the surface.
Limited water supply Condition
Irrigation meaning in management Purpose is “a simple process that includes the substantial time, capital, labor, equipment, and Often, availability of water is most important factor in this.” Today, the Water table is decreasing time to time. so after 10 to 15 years, we can not get suitable water for Irrigation in our field. Hence we develop that conditions by which we get suitable water to irrigate if the water is limited. And apply Such strategies that includes fine tuning irrigation scheduling, capturing and storing precipitation, and growing crops well suited to limited irrigation.
At the End of conclusion; some strategies are described below for dealing of Irrigation with limited water:
- Manage soil water depletion carefully.
- Manage Soil Moisture.
- If good quality of water is not available for irrigation, then we may use the marginal quality water for irrigation purpose.
- Use Best method of irrigation Such as Drip or Sprinkler.
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It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog ecohillagri.com to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.