Kharif crop: Overview, Geographic distribution, cultivation Practices- Part 1

crops
crops

Crops are one of the most important types of plants which are cultivated and grown in large quantity at large scale for different purposes such as own use, marketing purpose, economic purpose and so on.

In India there are two major crops that are cultivated in large scale, i.e.,

  1. Kharif crop
  2. Rabi crop

And there is a third types of crops that are also grown in large Scale in India that is Zaid crops. In this Blog we share all the available information about Kharif crops.

maize (kharif crop) in kharif season
Kharif crop

The Term Kharif is derived from an Arabic word which means the crop special for autumn season. As these crops are cultivated in autumn season (monsoon); so Kharif crops are also called as monsoon crops. And the season where Kharif crops are cultivated are referred as Kharif season.  Basically the season for cultivation of Kharif crops are different in different states of India but Generally, the kharif season Range lies between June to September.

  • Sowing Time Kharif crop = around June (beginning of monsoon)
  • Harvesting Time Kharif crop = September to October

Main Kharif crop list that are cultivated in Kharif Season-

Cereals: A kharif crop

CropsState (Production)Country(Production)
Rank 1Rank 2Rank 3Rank 1Rank 2Rank 3
RiceWest BengalUttar PradeshPunjabIndiaChinaIndonesia
MaizeKarnatakaMadhya pradeeshMaharashtraUnited StatesBrazilChina
JowarMaharashtraKarnatakaMadhya PradeshUnited StatesNigeriaEthiopia
BajraRajasthanUttar PradeshGujaratIndiaUnited StatesBrazil
milletRajasthanUttar PradeshGujaratIndiaUnited StatesBrazil

 

Oil seed in kharif season

CropsState(Production)Country(Production)
Rank 1Rank 2Rank 3Rank 1Rank 2Rank 3
groundnutsGujaratAndhra PradeshTamilnaduChinaIndiaNigeria
sunflowerKarnatakaAndhra PradeshMaharashtraRussian FederationUkraineArgentina
sesameWest BengalKarnatakaRajasthanMyanmarIndiaTanzania
soyabeansRajasthanMadhya PradeshMaharashtraMexicoRussiaParaguay
castorGujaratRajasthanAndhra PradeshIndiaChinaBrazil

 

Vegetables in kharif season

CropsState (Production)Country (Production)
Rank 1Rank 2Rank 3Rank 1Rank 2Rank 3
Bottle gourdBiharUttar PradeshHaryanaMexicoIndiaUnited State
ChiliAndhra PradeshMaharashtraKarnatakaChinaMexicoTurkey
lady fingersGujaratWest BengalBiharIndiaNigeriaPakistan
TomatoAndhra PradeshMadhya PradeshKarnatakaChinaIndiaTurkey
Brinjal West BengalOddisaGujaratChinaIndiaEgypt

 

Fruits in kharif season

CropsState (Production)Country (Production)
Rank 1Rank 2Rank 3Rank 1Rank 2Rank 3
GuavaUttar PradeshMadhya PradeshBiharIndiaChinaThailand
MangoUttar PradeshAndhra PradeshKarnatakaIndiaChinaThailand
OrangeMadhya PradeshPunjabMaharashtraBrazilUnited StateChina
SugarcaneAndhra PradeshBiharGujaratIndiaBrazilEU

 

Pulses in kharif season

CropsState (Production)Country (Production)
Rank 1Rank 2Rank 3Rank 1Rank 2Rank 3
PigeonpeaMaharashtraKarnatakaMadhya PradeshMyanmarMalawiKenya
BlackgramMadhya PradeshUttar PradeshAndhra PradeshIndiaMyanmarPakistan
GreengramOrissaMaharashtraAndhra PradeshIndiaBrazilUnited State
MothRajasthanGujaratAndhra PradeshIndiaUnited StateAustralia

 

 

RICE: World’s leading Kharif crop

Origin-

According to our Hindu mythology, The oldest Rice specimen was introduced in Hastinapur (uttar Pradesh) during Mahabharat Time between 1000-750 B.C. But Vavilov (1926) suggested that India and Burma is the origin of cultivated rice.

Geographic distribution-

Rice is the kharif crop that is considered as the world’s leading kharif crop. Rice is cultivated in 155 million hectares over the world with a production of approx 596 million tonnes. And wheat is considered as the world’s Second leading crop. On the Basis of area and production; Asia leads in the cultivation of rice. The 10 leading countries that producing this kharif crop (Rice)  are-

RankCountry
1Japan
2Brazil
3China
4India
5Indonesia
6Bangladesh
7Vietnam
8Thailand
9Myanmar
10Philippines

 

India has the largest area in cultivation of Rice after China and Indonesia. Rice is cultivated in 44.8 million hectares land in India. On the Basis of Production of Rice, India get the second Rank after china. In India, rice is cultivated in almost all the states. Such as- Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, uttrakhand and so on.

Economic importance-

Rice is a Kharif crop that is the leading crop over the world, so obviously Rice farming takes a large land for cultivation of Rice. Rice farming is the most important economic activity on earth because only 90% rice is produced in Asia alone and only 6-7% of production is exported from other area. Rice Farming is considered as the oldest Cultivation Practices in the world. Rice field covers 11% of arable land. It is cultivated in 250 million Asian farms. Some Varieties of Rice that are mostly famous in India are-  Ratna, Jaya, Rasi, Triveni, Mandya, Swarnapraba, Red Annapoorna, Aishwarya, Basmati and so on.

Soil requirement-

clayey soil- Best for Rice(kharif crop)
clayey soil

Generally Rice is cultivated in all that soils which have good water retention capacity with good amount of clay and organic matter because these conditions are considered as the ideal condition for rice cultivation. The most suitable soil for the Rice cultivation is Clay soil or clay loams soil because, such soils are the most capable of holding water in long period for sustain crop. The soil which has the pH range between 5.5 and 6.5 are considered as suitable for Rice cultivation. Rice can not be cultivated in alkaline soil; But Rice can be cultivated on alkali soils also, after treating that soil with gypsum or pyrite. For more knowledge about any kharif crop, Also Subscribe our you tube channel-      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n96kZGOxDUk

Climate requirement-

Rice crop require a hot and humid climate for their cultivation. Hot and humid climate are suitable for Rice cultivation because these regions have high humidity, longer sunshine and a confident supply of water. The optimum temperature that is required for the better growth of Rice crop lies from 21 to 37 degree Celsius. At the time of Tillage, Rice requires a higher temperature. And At the time of blooming, requirement of temperature is from 26.5 to 29.5 degree Celsius. At the time of ripening, the temperature should be between 20 to 25 degree Celsius. Rice crops come under short day Plant on the basis of Photo-periodically classification of crops.

Varieties of the Kharif crop

Rice Season and Varieties-

Season (Sowing time)VarietyDurationDistricts
Navarai (December to January)ADT 36, ADT 37, ASD 16, IR 64, ASD 18, ADT 42, ADT 43, MDU 5, ASD 20, IR 20, ADT 39, CO 43, CO 47, ASD 20, TRY (R)2< 120Tiruvallur, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Cuddalore, Villupuram, Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur, Nagapattinam, Madurai, Theni, Salem, Namakkal, Dindigul, Dharmapuri, Coimbatore,Erode and Pudukkottai.
Sornavari (April to May)ADT 36, IR 36, IR 50, ADT 37, ASD 16, ASD 17, IR 64, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5, ASD 20, ADT 43, CO 47, TRY (R)2*, ADT (R) 45, ADTRH 1, ADT (R) 47, ADT (R) 47< 120Tiruvallur, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Cuddalore, Villupuram, Namakkal, Dharmapuri
Early Kar (April to may)IR 50, ADT 36, IR 64, ADT 42, ADT 43, ADT 45, CO 47, ADT (R) 47< 120Tirunelveli, Kanyakumari, Thoothukudi, Erode, Coimbatore, Madurai, Theni, Dindigul, Salem, Namakkal, Dharmapuri
Kar (may to June)IR 50, ADT 36, ASD 16, ASD 17, IR 64, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5, ASD 20, ADT 43, CO 47, ADT (R) 45, TRY (R)2*, ADTRH 1, ADT (R) 47, IR 36, ADT 37, Bhavani, IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43, MDU 4, ASD 19, Paiyur 1< 120Tirunelveli, Kanyakumari, Thoothukudi, Erode, Coimbatore, Madurai, Theni, Dindigul, Salem, Namakkal, Dharmapuri
Kuruvai (June to July)ADT 36, IR 50, IR 64, ASD 16, ADT 37, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5, ADT 43, CO 47, ADT (R) 45,TRY (R)2*, ADTRH 1, ADT (R) 47, ADT (R) 48< 120Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur, Thanjavur, Nagapattinam, Tiruvarur, Pudukottai, Erode
Early Samba (July to August)ADT 36, IR 36, ADT 39, ASD 17, PMK 2, TKM (R) 12, PMK (R) 3, MDU 5130 to 135Tiruvallur, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Salem, Namakkal, Cuddalore, Villupuram, Madurai, Theni, Ramanathapuram, Dharmapuri, Coimbatore, Erode, Pudukkottai, The Nilgiris
Samba (August)Ponmani, IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43, ADT 40, Paiyur 1, PY 4, ADT 39, TRY 1, ASD 19, ADT(R) 44, CORH 2, CO 45, ASD 19, ADT 38, ADT (R) 46, CO 42, ADT 40, ADT 38, MDU 3, MDU 4, Bhavani130 to 135 and > 150Approx All districts

 

Late Samba (September to octuber)IR 20, White Ponni, ADT 38, ADT 39, CO 43, CO 46, TRY 1, ADT (R)46, CORH 2, Ponmani, ASD 19, ADT (R)46, TPS 2, TPS 3, ASD 18, ASD 19, MDU 5130 to 135Tiruvallur, Madurai, Theni, Coimbatore, Erode
Late Pishanam (September to octuber)ASD 18, ASD 16, ASD 19, CO 43, TRY 1, ADT (R)46130 to 135Madurai, Theni, Dindigul, Kanyakumari, Tirunelveli , Thoothukudi
Late Thaladi (octuber to November)ADT 36, PMK 2, TKM 11, PMK (R) 3, TKM 10, TKM (R) 12115 to 120Thanjavur, Nagapattinam, Tiruvarur, Tiruchirapalli

 

Cultivation Practices of Kharif crop (Rice)

Nursery Management for Rice

Seed Rate-
  • for long duration varieties = 30 kg per hectare
  • for medium duration varieties = 40 kg per hectare
  • for short duration varieties = 60 kg per hectare
  • for hybrid varieties = 20 kg per hectare
Seed treatment-
  • Treat the seeds with Pyroquilon or Tricyclozole solution @ 2 l of water for 1 kg of seeds.
  • This wet seed treatment gives protection to the seedlings up to 40 days from disease.
  • If the seeds are needed for sowing immediately, keep the soaked seed in gunny bag in dark area leave for 24hrs for sprouting.
Forming seedbeds-
  • Firstly make the channels (Drains) of 30cm wide all around the seedbeds.
  • Length of Seed Bed = from 8 to 10m (according to slope of the land).
  • Collect the soil that is puddled from the channel and spread that soil on the seedbed.
  • Then Level the surface of the seedbed.
Sowing-

Sow the seeds uniformly on the seedbed, with sufficient water in the nursery (seed Bed).

Water management-
  • Irrigate the Nursery after 18 to 24 hours of sowing.
  • To avoid stagnation of water in any part of the seedbed.
Nutrients management-
  • Supply 1 tonne of FYM or any compost to 20 cents nursery and spread uniformly on the soil.
  • In clayey soils where root snapping is a Basic problem, It can be cured by supplying of 4kg of gypsum and 1kg of DAP can be applied at 10 days after sowing.

Main Field Management

Land preparation-
  • Plough the land during summer for water requirement of land.
  • Keep the surface of the field covered with water. So, flood the field 1 or 2 days before ploughing.
Best Time for Seedling-
  • for long duration varieties = 35 to 40 days
  • for medium duration varieties = 25 to 30 days
  • for short duration varieties = 18 to 22 days
  • Pull out the seedlings at the 4th leaf stage.
Planting of Seedling-
SoilDurationSpacing (cm)Hills/m2
Short15×1066
Medium and Low FertilityMedium20×1050
Long20×1533
Short20×1050
High fertilityMedium20×1533
Long20×2025

 

  • For Transplanting of kharif crop (Rice)-
  1. for short duration varieties = 2 to 3 seedlings/hill
  2. for medium duration varieties = 2 seedlings/hill
  3. for long duration varieties = 2 seedlings/hill
  • For Line planting of Kharif crop (Rice) = a minimum row spacing of 20 cm to use rotary weeder.
Nutrient management-

Uses of organic manures –

  • Apply 12.5 t of FYM or green manure @ 6.25 t/ha.
  • In the place of green manure, press-mud or composted coir-pith can also be used.

Uses of Bio-fertilizer-

  • Broadcast 10 kg of soil mixed with powdered BGA flakes at 10 DAT for the dry season crop.
  • Raise Azolla grass as a dual crop by 250 kg/ha during weeding for the wet season crop.
  • Mix the 10 packets (2000 g)/ha of Azospirillum and 10 packets (2000g/ha) of Phosphobacteria or 20 packets (4000g/ha) of Azophos with 25 kg FYM and 25 kg of soil and broadcast these mixture uniformly in the main field before transplanting.

Uses of inorganic fertilizers-

NutrientsShort duration varieties (Dry season)Medium and long duration varieties (Wet season) 

 

 

Cauvery delta & Coimbatore tract For other tractsHybrid riceLow N responsive cultivars (like Improved White Ponni)
N15012017575
P2O550406050
K2O50406050

 

Uses of Phosphorus fertilizer

  • P may be applied as basal.
  • When the green manure is applied, rock phosphate can be used as a cheap source.

Uses of Zinc Sulphate

  • Mix 25 kg of zinc sulphate with 50 kg dry sand and Spread on the Field just before transplanting.
  • If deficiency symptom may be seen, uses of 0.5% Zinc sulphate with 1.0% urea on the field at 15 days interval.

Uses of gypsum

  • Apply 500 kg of gypsum/ha at last ploughing. Gypsum is a source of Calcium and Sulphur nutrients.
Weed management
  • Cultural Practices such as dual cropping.
  • Manual weeding is also essential.
  • Uses of Pre-emergence herbicides and Post – emergence herbicides.
Water management –
  • Puddling and leveling minimizes the water requirement on the Field.
  • Maintain 2.5cm of water over the puddle and also Maintain 2 cm of water up to seven days of transplanting.
  • At the time of transplanting, a shallow depth of 2cm of water is adequate since high depth of water will lead to deep planting.
Harvesting-
  • If 80% of the panicles turn into the straw colour, then this kharif crop is ready for harvesting.
  • Confirm the maturity of Rice by selecting the most mature grains.
  • Maturity may be hastened by 3-4 days by spraying of 20 Per cent  Na Cl (Salt) a week before harvesting of Rice crop.
Yield of this Kharif crop (Rice)
  • 4000 and 6000 kg/ha (depending on the management and various climatic condition).
  • Obtain normally 8000-10000 kg/ha yield of Straw.

Also visit our you tube channel, hope this also helps you- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pnAqbMRnV0&t=799s

 

 

 

See also


 

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It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog ecohillagri.com to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.

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