According to Soil Scientist Vasily Vasilyevich Dokuchaiev (1846-1903);Soil is a naturally made body which is composed of mineral and organic constituents, having a definite component proportion and have a distinct nature. we need more fertile soil for every work and soil fertilizer helps us to increase soil fertility, and more Plants nutrition fixed in the soil. Soil Perform an important Role in Our life, Such as-
- It support Plants and tree to survive l0ng life.
- It provides all the essential nutrients to Plants for their Proper Growth.
- It also Provide Shelter to many Organisms such as Snake, mouse, Rabbit and other Micro organism.
Our Earth’s soil is made up of mainly four components, that is- (a). Minerals, (b). Organic Matter, (3). Air, & (4). water. And the study of soil and its characteristics and properties is known as Soil Science.
A fertilizer is a Chemical material that is Produced by Industry or Factory and applied to soil or to plant that is essential to the growth of plants. even they are also called Soil Fertilizer because they are also used in Soil. Fertilizer Provides all Essential Plants nutrition and Nutrients to Plants for their Growth. And Nutrients are those materials that supply nutrition to Plants. Further Nutrients are Categorized into Two groups-
- Macro Nutrients = All Nutrients that are consumed in Large Amount are called Macro Nutrients. Such as- Nitrogen, Potassium, Phosphorus, Iron, etc.
- Micro Nutrients = All Nutrients that are consumed in Little Amount are called Micro Nutrients. Such as- Magnesium, Copper, Zinc, etc.
And the main Question comes in our mind is that- How to manage Soil fertilizer ? = Firstly we should store Soil Fertilizer in a good manner, Always store soil fertilizers in their original containers. Handle and store fertilizer away from wellheads and surface water and Do not store soil fertilizer underground in containers or pits.
- 1 History of Plants Nutrition and Soil Fertilizer
- 2 Soil Fertility
- 3 Plants Growth and Development
- 4 Plant Growth Hormones
- 5 Factors that affect Plants Growth
- 6 Nutrients for Plant or Plants nutrition
History of Plants Nutrition and Soil Fertilizer
Historical Developments of Soil Fertility and Soil Fertilizer –
Soil Fertility means How the soils are fertile?, Management of Soil fertilizer and fertility is not a new research. In Ancient Time also, People had Knowledge of applying manures such as FYM, Green manures, Fish meal, and many soil fertilizer to the soil for better growth of Plants and increase the yield. It has a Huge History, many Scientists worked on them,
(1). Xenophan = Xenophan was a Greek Scientist who first recorded the Advantages of Green manure.
(2). Cato = He wrote a Book for intensive Cultivation, Crop Rotation and Use of Livestock in Farming. He was the First Person who classify Land Based on Specific crops.
(3). Columella = He was a Scientist worked on Improvement of Soil. He also discovered that- By using of Drains, Ashes, Lime to make soil more Productive.
(4). Jethro Tull and Francis Home = They uses nitrate salts, water, Epsom salt and sodium and Potassium based compound to enhance Plants growth.
(5). Theodore de Seussure and Jean Baptiste = They were the First who analyzed that Plants need Minerals and Nutrients for Growth and Development.
(6). Justus Von Liebig = He was a German Chemist Who discovered that Growing Plants take some elements such as Ca, K, S, and P from the soil.
(7). John B. Lawes = He experimented with his Farm that gave Super Phosphate to his Farm.
- The Swiss Scientist, Theodre de Saussure discovered that the plants absorbed O2 and liberated carbon dioxide (CO2) in the process of respiration. After doing re-experiment, he also observed that plants absorb CO2 and release O2 in the presence of Sun light; While plants died when they kept in a CO2-free environment. By this Experiment, He concluded that Plants need Some nutrients.
- Further Jean Baptiste Boussingault (1802-1882) observed that some elements come from Soil, Water and Air.
- Justus Von Liebig was a German chemist and He suggested that Carbon in plants comes from any source other than CO2.
- According to Liebig, Every field contains a maximum of one or more nutrients.
- Robert Warrington showed that nitrification Process could be stopped by carbon disulfide and chloroform and that it could be started again by adding a small amount of unsterilized soil.
- Hellriegel and Wilfarth, concluded that All Nitrogen Based Bacteria are responsible for Plants Growth.
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As we know that Soil is a naturally made body which is formed due to influence of climate (temperature, sunlight, wind and other natural phenomena) and living organisms acting on Regolith or Parent materials(such as-Rocks and minerals) over a period of time.
For Healthy Growth of Plants, Soil should be more Fertile. Soil plays an Important Role in Survival of an organisms. So Plants also required the support of Soil for their survival (life). So Some Importance of Soil Fertility are given Below-
- More Fertile soil Provides all those Essential elements and Nutrients that Plants need to Survive.
- Fertile Soil Support the Plants Life long.
- Fertile Soil may help Plants to take all the components that is needed for Photosynthesis Process.
- Fertile Soil Provides Plant with additional Life Supporting Nutrients.
- Soil Fertility also matters to Organic Farmers.
NOTE = Loamy Soil is the most Fertile soil. Why? , Because Loamy Soil is the mixture of Sand, Silt, And Clay. So, They have a lot of Organic Matter. And Most Infertile Soils are Laterite Soil. So laterite soils are basically used in making of Brick.
Factors Affecting Soil Fertility-
(1). Soil Ph = Soil Ph refers to the Acidity and Alkalinity of Soil with the help of Ph Scale. Soil Ph determines the Nutrients availability for Soil.
(2). Presence of Organic Matter = Organic Matter is a material that contains a large number of Carbon Chain. Organic Materials contain many essential Nutrients and Elements that Plants needed for their Proper Growth.
(3). Moisture Content = Moisture means the Presence of concentration of water. Moisture content increase the fertility power of Soil.
(4). Bulk Density = Bulk Density means the Compaction between the particles of Soil. If Soil to be highly Compacted then it obstruct the Root Penetration into the Soil. If root can not Penetrate Soil, they Can not get nutrients for their Growth.
(5).Ground Water = If more ground water present, more soil solution is made. And It can easily to reach the nutrients to Plants.
(6). Soil Texture (Structure) = If Soil Texture or Structure is very fine, it can hold more essential elements and Soil become more fertile.
Soil Fertility Problems in India-
In Present Day, The taste of Vegetables is not so gook like ancient age, The reason of this is reducing in Soil Fertility Power. Indian Farmers facing this Problem with many times. But they did not know whats the Problem that is responsible for it and How it is Solved.
Some Basic reason that Causes the reduction of Soil Fertility-
- Increasing Soil Erosion.
- Decrease the moisture content in the Soil.
- Farmers use Highly Toxic Chemical Soil Fertilizers, Pesticides and so many chemicals.
- Soil have no any proper Plants nutrition.
reduction in Soil Fertility may cause-
- Decrease the Yield of Crops.
- Reduce the Quality of Crops.
- more nutrients are required.
- more water id needed.
- Plants do not get proper Plants nutrition.
To get the PDF of Soil Fertilizer and Nutrients management, click this link and Download-
Plants Growth and Development
All Living organism’s body is made up of Cell. And One important characteristics of Cell is to develop with every time. In Plant’s case, All cell develop from the Zygote. And Zygote produces a number of cells which organize into Tissues and Organs.
Growth = Growth can be defined as the Permanent increasement in Size, volume and weight of a cell or an Organism. For example- In Plants, expansion of a leaf and elongation of stems, etc. Basically Growth is a Basic characteristics of a Living Organisms.
Development = Development is a process that includes all the changes that an organism goes through during its life cycle from germination of seed to senescence.
Characteristics of Growth-
The main Characteristics of Growth are-
- Cellular Growth.
- Cell division.
- Cell Expansion.
- Cellular Differentiation.
(1). Cellular Growth = Cellular growth means increase the number of Cell in an Organism.
(2). Cell Division = Cell Division means Splitting of Parent cell into Daughter Cell.
(3). Cell Expansion = Cell Expansion means increase the area, Volume and mass of a cell.
(4). Cellular Differentiation = Cellular Differentiation is a process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell, it means cell become more mature than Previous stage. example – Cells lose their Protoplasm during formation of tracheary elements. In Differentiation, Cells undergo structural changes.
Growth Rate can be defined as Increase the growth of an organism per unit Time. Growth Rate can be expressed mathematically. Plants Growth Rate is directly proportional to Plants nutrition. Basically Growth Rate are of Two types- (a). Arithmetic Growth, (2). Geometric growth.
Re differentiation = New cells produced again loose the power of division and become a part of permanent tissue that is called re differentiation. For example- Formation of tumour cells.
Plant Growth Hormones
Plants Growth Hormones are the Hormones or basically chemical Substance that are found inside the cell or Body of Plants, And are Responsible for their Growth and Development. The Term hormone is derived from the Greek word which means in motion. Plant hormones affect Gene Expression levels, cellular division, growth, Cellular Differentiation, etc.
Plants Growth Regulator-
Plants Growth Regulator are the hormones or chemical substances that regulate or influence the growth and differentiation of Plant cells, tissues and organs. Plants Growth Regulator perform the function as chemical messenger for inter-cellular communication inside the Plants. Further Plants Growth Regulator are categorized into two types-
- Plants Growth Promoter
- Plants Growth Inhibitor
Plant Growth Promoters-
Plant Growth Promoters are the Hormones that Promote the growth of a cell; such as increase in cell size, area, and volume. Plant Growth Promoters include mainly three Hormones, i.e., Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins.
Auxins were first discovered by two Scientist Charles Darwin and second, Francis Darwin. and it was firstly isolated by urine of Human beings. There are five naturally occurring auxins that are found in plants, i.e., indole-3-acetic acid, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid, phenylacetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, and indole-3-propionic acid.
Some example of Synthetic Auxins – IAA; IBA; NAA; 2, 4-D.
Effects of Auxins on Plants-
- Auxins promote stem elongation, inhibit growth of lateral buds.
- Auxins are used as herbicides.
- Auxins also helps in Cell division.
- It promote Flowering in Plants.
- Auxins also promote apical dominance.
Gibberellins are also one kind of Plant Growth Regulator. And more than 100 variety of Gibberellins are known today, Gibberellins are denoted as GA1, GA2, GA3, GA4 and so on. They are Acidic in Nature. It causes increase the size and improve the shape of Fruits. Gibberellins are firstly isolated from infected Rice Seedling. First discovered Gibberellins are known as Gibberellic Acid.
Effects of Gibberellins on Plants-
- Gibberellins elongate the size of stem.
- Gibberellins helps in germination of Seeds.
- It promote flowering in Long Day Plants.
Two Scientist discovered this Plant Growth Regulator first- Skoog and Miller. Cytokinins was discovered as kinetin and it does not occurs in Plants naturally. Cytokinins are in that region where cell division occur Rapidly.
Effect of Cytokinins on Plants-
- Cytokinins influence the cell division.
- It promote Lateral Bud in the plant.
- It also increase the cell expansion in Leaves.
- Cytokinins also promotes the Chlorophyll Synthesis.
Plant Growth Inhibitor –
Basically Plant Growth Inhibitor is a Plant Growth Regulator that inhibit the growth and Development in Plants. It includes two Hormones- Ethylene and Abscisic Acid.
Ethylene = Ethylene are the Chemical compounds that contains two molecules of carbon and four molecules of Hydrogen, And both carbon join with each other by double bond.
Abscisic Acid = a scientist, Frederick T. Addicott and his co-workers identified Abscisic Acid. Abscisic Acid is denoted by ABA. Abscisic Acid is also known as Stress hormones. Abscisic Acid inhibits Seed germination and Stimulate the closure of Stomata.
Factors that affect Plants Growth
Two Factors that affect Plant growth-
- Internal Factors,
- External factors.
(1). Internal factors –
Those factors that affect the Growth of Plants internally, such as Genetically or hereditically.
Genetic Factors = Genetic factors are determined by the Gene of Plants and trees. The Increase in crop yields and other desirable characters are related to Genetic make up of plants-
- Plants be mature in Earlier stage.
- Crops have ability for high Yielding.
- Crops tolerate the insects, Pests and diseases.
- Quality of Grains be increase.
(2). External factors –
Those factors that affect the Growth of Plants externally, it includes-
- Climatic Factors
- Edaphic Factors
- Biotic Factors
- Socio – economic Factors
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Nutrients for Plant or Plants nutrition
Plants are the most Important Kingdom of an Organisms exist in our Environment. Plants are multicellular Organism having surprising ability to prepare their own foods to get nourishment to their body and grow properly. Plants make their own foods with the help of photosynthesis process. Plant Nutrients are those component or materials that provides nutrition to Plants. Nutrients are further classified into Two types-
- Macro Nutrients = All Nutrients that are consumed in Large Amount and get more Plants nutrition are called Macro Nutrients. Such as- Nitrogen, Potassium, Phosphorus, Iron, etc.
- Micro Nutrients = All Nutrients that are consumed in Little Amount and get less Plants nutrition than macronutrients are called Micro Nutrients. Such as- Magnesium, Copper, Zinc, etc.
Essential Elements for Plants-
There are Sixteen elements that considered as essential to plant growth. i.e., Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are the most abundant elements in plants. And remaining 13 essential elements are classified as macronutrients and micronutrients on the Basis of consumption by Trees or Plants.
Macro nutrients = nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, calcium and magnesium.
Micro nutrients = iron, zinc, manganese, copper, born, chlorine and molybdenum, sodium, cobalt, vanadium, nickel and silicon.
NOTE = Micro nutrients are referred to as minor elements, but this does not mean that they are less important than macro nutrients. Micro nutrient deficiency or toxicity can reduce yield of plant similar to macro nutrient deficiency.
Role or Function of these Elements –
Roles of Macro or Micro nutrients are describe below in this Table-
|Plants Nutrition or Elements||Function & Role of these Plants Nutrition|
|Carbon||Basic molecular component of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.|
|Oxygen||Oxygen is somewhat like carbon in that it occurs in virtually all organic compounds of living organisms.|
|Hydrogen||Hydrogen plays a central role in plant metabolism. Important in ionic balance and as main reducing agent and plays a key role in energy relations of cells.|
|Nitrogen||Nitrogen is basically used in Soil Fertilizer. It is a component of many important organic compounds ranging from proteins to nucleic acids. It contains more plants nutrition than other elements or Soil Fertilizer.|
|Phosphorus||Central role in plants is in energy transfer and protein metabolism. and used in soil fertilizer.|
|Potassium||It helps in osmotic and ionic regulation. Potassium functions as a cofactor or activator for many enzymes of carbohydrate and protein metabolism. It is also used in Soil Fertilizer.|
|Calcium||Calcium is involved in cell division and plays a major role in the maintenance of membrane integrity.|
|Magnesium||Magnesium is responsible for the Component of chlorophyll for many enzymatic reactions.|
|Sulfur||Sulfur is involved in plant cell energetic. Provides Plants nutrition.|
|Iron||An essential component of many heme and nonheme Fe enzymes and carries, including the cytochromes and the ferredoxins.|
|Zinc||Essential component including carbonic anhydrase, alcohol dehydrogenase, glutamic dehydrogenase, and malic dehydrogenase, among others.|
Deficiency of Plants nutrition-
Plants cannot complete their life cycle without these elements. Generally, plants exhibit the visual symptoms indicating a deficiency in a specific Plants nutrition and nutrient, which normally can be corrected or prevented by supplying of that Plants nutrition. When the concentration of an essential element is low enough to limit yield severely and distinct deficiency symptoms are visible. Extreme deficiencies can result in plant death. With moderate or slight deficiencies, symptoms may not be visible, but yields will still be reduced. This can be Prevented by suplying of Proper Plants nutrition.
Toxicity of Plants nutrition –
Toxicity is also known as Excessive of elements that cause by excess use of soil fertilizer or Plants nutrition. When the concentration of essential or other elements is high enough to reduce plant growth and yield. Excessive Plants nutrition concentration and excessive Soil fertilizer can cause an imbalance in other essential nutrients, which also can reduce yield.
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