Plants Breeding and Genetics : How to Germinate the Desirable Plants??

Flowering Plants

Plants are the most essential Part of an Organisms exist in our Ecosystem. Plants are multicellular Organism ( multicellular means any one having more than one cell). Plants have surprising ability to prepare their own foods to get nutrients to their body parts and grow properly. we can increase the Quality of Plants by helping of Plants Breeding. Plants Breeding means to produce desirable plants. Plants make their own foods with the help of photosynthesis process and Photosynthesis is a process in which the plants make their foods with the help of  carbon di-oxide and Water in the presence of sunlight. And for more knowledge about plants; you may click this Link   Plants : Overview, Physiology,Types and Nutrients .

And Breeding is the Process or an action of germinating or generating any organism. Further Breeding is categorized into Two types, i.e.,

  1. Inbreeding = Breeding of the same organisms such as male and female of same kind are known as inbreeding.
  2. Out breeding = Out breeding of different organisms such as male and female of different kind is known as out breeding.

Some People confusing between Breeding or Reproduction because meaning of Both is to Germinate new organism. So, the basic Difference between them is- “In Reproduction, producing new individuals biologically. While In Breeding, producing of new individuals through Propagation.

History development of plants Breeding

Father of Plants Breeding
Gregor Mendel

Plants breeding can be defined as a science, and technology that deals with the study of genetic improvement of crop plants. And Plant Breeding is also known as science of crop improvement. In Plants Breeding, also deals about the improvement the heredity of plants. Sir Gregor John Mendel is the father of plant breeding and genetics also.

  •  1871 – Government of India created the Department of Agriculture for  this sector.
  • 1905 – First Imperial Agricultural Research Institute was establish in Pusa, Bihar
  • 1934 – The buildings of the institute situated at Pusa was damaged by huge earthquake.
  • 1936 – Shifted that Agricultural Research Institute from Pusa to New Delhi
  • 1946 – changed its Name to Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI)
  • 1901-05 – Agricultural Colleges were established at Kanpur, Pune, Sabour, Llyalpur, Coimbatore and other Place.
  • 1929 –Establishment of first Imperial council of Agricultural Research.
    1946 – Also change its name to Indian Council Agricultural Research (ICAR).
  • 1921 – Indian Central Cotton Committee was established for research on breeding and cultivation of cotton.
  • 1956 – Established the Project for regional research on cotton, oilseeds and millets. that was located at 17 different centres through out the country
  • 1957 – All India Coordinated maize improvement project was started.
  • 1961 – The first hybrid maize variety was known.
  • 1960 – First Agricultural University was established at Pantnagar,U.P.

Contribution of Scientist in plants Breeding-

Name of the ScientistsContributions
Gene for gene hypothesisFlor
Ear to row methodHopkins
Single Seed Descent MethodGoulden
Double cross schemeJones
MutationHugo de Vries
Chemical mutagenAurbach
Semi dwarf rice varietiesT.T. Chang

 


Concept of Plants Breeding

Plants Breeding in Lab
Breeding of Plants

Basically, Plants breeding is a science, and modern technology which deals with the study of genetic improvement of crop plants.Its aim is to improve the Quality of plants so that they become much better desirable  economically. In Plants Breeding, we can germinate desirable Plants, Such as Hybrid, Genetic Modified. By them we can improve the yield, and can be achieved high Quality of that varieties. And grow new variety in different Season.

Modern varieties of Plants developed by Breeding are more uniform and better than land Used variety of Plants. Thus plant’s breed leads to reduction in diversity.


Importance and Scope Of Plants Breeding

Increase in yield
  1. With the help of Plants Breeding, we can increase the yield of Crops.
  2. Improve and enhance the quality of Crops.
  3. Reduce the Dormancy in Seeds.
  4. Produce a number of Varieties for New Seasons.
  5. Change in maturity Duration of Crops.
  6. Determinate the Growth of Plants.
  7. Elimination of Toxic Substances from crops and their Seeds.
  8. Maintain the Synchronous Maturity in crops.

Nature and Role

Role of plants Breeding –

  • Plants Breeding enhance the value of food crops.
  • It also enhance the nutritional quality of food crops.
  • Also increase the microbial activity in Plants.
  • Plants Breeding increase the Performance of Function inside the plants.
  • Plant Breeding helps to reduce the Seed dormancy Rate.
  • It increase the Germination Rate also.

Achievements in Future

Future in Plants Breeding
Working in lab
  • Plants Breeding means to germinate the plants and it has been helping the mankind. With the perfect knowledge of genetics, any one can grow a plant from its part and a number of varieties have been known of various crop plants.
  • The application of biotechnology to field crop has already led to the field testing of genetically modified crop plants.
  • Advances in molecular biology also helps in Plant Breeding.
  • In Plants Breeding, Genes play an important role to breed the crops. because Genes from various organisms boost the performance of crops.
  • Today Plant Breeding is spreading all over the world; Such as In Europe, hirudin, an anti-thrombin protein is already being produced from transgenic Brassica napus.

Download the PDF of Plants Breeding and Genetics through this Link.

Plants Breeding and Genetics


Genetics and Its Relation

Genetics is a Part of Biological Science in which we deals about Genes, Characteristics of Gene, and Genetic variation in organisms body and also heredity in organisms. Gregor Mendel, a scientist was a Father of genetics.

Plants Breeding
Plants Breeding in Lab

After the rediscovery of Mendel’s laws in 1900; it was analyzed that the new principles of heredity  had far-reaching consequences for practical for plant breeding work. Genetic recombination is still one of the two cornerstones of modern plant breeding. And Other one is genes. The principle of genetic recombination must have applied to the breeders, as it clearly demonstrated the possibility of combination of one variety with other variety and produce a new Variety.

 


Reproduction

Reproduction is the Process of generation of new borne Organisms from their Parents. Here we describe the reproduction in Plants. reproduction determines the genetic constitution of crop plants. and Modes of Reproduction determines the goal of a breeding programme.

modes of reproduction-

The Reproduction in plants may be Categorized into two categories i.e.,

  1. asexual and
  2. sexual.

Asexual Reproduction-

Asexual Reproduction is a mode of Reproduction in which new Baby is reproduced without any Fusion of male or female Gametes. So new organisms are produced with the help of Body parts of a Plant, that is known as Vegetative Propagation. Some Asexual types are following-

  • Budding
  • Fragmentation
  • fission
  • Spore Formation
  • Artificial Vegetative Propagation (It includes reproduction by leaf, By Stem, By root, etc.)

Sexual Reproduction-

Sexual Reproduction is a mode of Reproduction in which new Organism is reproduced with the help of Fusion of two gametes (1).male and (2).female Gametes. And a sexual organ is required for performing reproduction.  In Plants, Flower is the Sexual organ in which reproduction is perform.

Pollen Grains play an important role in reproduction in Plants. firstly pollen grains reach at the ovule of female parts of flower and fuse with female gametes and Fertilized. these whole process is Known as Pollination.

Modes of Pollination-

pollination in Flower
pollination

Pollination is the Process to the transfer of pollen grains from anthers to stigmas of flowers. Pollination is done in 3 modes, i.e.,

  1. Self Pollinated,
  2. Cross pollinated, and
  3. Often Cross Pollinated.

Self Incompatibility

Self-incompatibility is a mechanism in Angiosperm (means flowering plants) that prevents in-breeding and promotes out-crossing. The self-incompatibility is genetically controlled by a complex cellular interactions between the self-incompatible pollen and pistil. Over than 300 species of angiosperms show self incompatibility.

Self-incompatible pollen grains fail to germinate on the stigma. If some Self-incompatible pollen grains perform germination, pollen tubes fail to enter the stigma. the control of incompatibility reactions is relatively simple.

In 1954 Lewis has suggested the classifications of self-incompatibility; that is- 1. heteromorphic system, 2. homomorphic system.

Heteromorphic System-

The term Heteromorphic is derived from two words- Hetero(means different) and morphic (means morphology). So, Heteromorphic system is defined as flowers of different incompatibility groups have different morphological structure. For example, in Primula there are two types of flowers, pin and thrum. Pin flowers have long styles and short stamens, while thrum flowers have short styles and long stamens. This situation is referred to as distyly.

Homomorphic system-

The term Homomorphic is derived from two words- Homo(means Same) and morphic (means morphology). So, Homomorphic system is defined as incompatibility is not associated with morphological differences among flowers. and the incompatibility of pollen is controlled by the genotype of the plant.

Mechanism of Self-Incompatibility-

The mechanism of self-incompatibility is complex. The various phenomena observed in self-incompatible are classified into three categories :

  1. pollen-stigma interaction,
  2. pollen tube-style interaction, and
  3. pollen tube-ovule interaction.

(1). Pollen-Stigma Interaction

These interactions occur just after the pollen grains reach the stigma and generally prevent pollen germination.

(2). pollen tube-style interaction

In most cases of the gametophytic system, pollen grains germinate and pollen tubes penetrate the stigmatic surface. But in incompatible combinations, the growth of pollen tubes is retarded within the stigma, e.g., Oenothera.

(3). Pollen Tube-Ovule Interaction

In this case, the pollen tubes reach the ovule and effect fertilization. while, in incompatible combinations, embryos degenerate at an early stage of development. e.g., Theobromo cacao.


Domestication and Sterility

Domestication  is the process of generating a new species under human management. And this  method comes under the basic method of plant breeding.

For Example- In case of medicinal and Ornamental plants, During the long period, natural selection has definitely acted on the domesticated species. Movement of man from one place to another place also brought the cultivated plant species from native region to other place. In 700 BC, Babylonians and Assyrians pollinated date palm artificially. In 17th century, several varieties of that palm were developed in France.

Sterility-

Sterility is the physiological inability that effect the sexual reproduction in a living organisms. Sterility is further characterized into male or female sterility. Male sterility is characterized by nonfunctional pollen grains, while female sterility functions normally. It occurs in nature due to mattation. Male sterility is classified into three groups :

  1. genetic sterility= Genetic male sterility is ordinarily governed by a single recessive genes but dominant genes governing male sterility are also known. e.g., in safflower.
  2. Cytoplasmic sterility= This type of male sterility is determined by the cytoplasm. Since the cytoplasm of a zygote comes primarily from egg cell. Cytoplasmic male sterility is known in many plant species, some of them are crop plants.
  3. Cytoplasmic-genetic sterility= This is a type of Cytoplasmic male sterility in which a nuclear gene for restoring fertility in the male sterile line is known. e.g., wheat.

Download the PDF of Plants Breeding and Genetics through this Link.

Plants Breeding and Genetics


Genetic Variation and Heritability

Genetic Variation means to change the quality or Property of genes of an organisms and convert them into other organism. And Heritability is the ratio of genetic variance to the total variance (phenotypic variance). For more Knowledge about Plants breeding you may visit the site of MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE by clicking this Site- https://www.mpipz.mpg.de/en .

In crop improvement, the genetic component of variation is important for transmitted them to the next generation. So the Formula of Heritability is-

H = Vg / Vp Vp = Vg+Ve

Where,

  • Vp = phenotypic variance
  • Vg = genotypic variance
  • Ve = error variance of environmental variance
  • H  = Heritability

Download the PDF of Plants Breeding and Genetics through this Link.

Plants Breeding and Genetics


 

 

 

See Also


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It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog ecohillagri.com to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.

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