Plants : Overview, Physiology,Types and Nutrients

General Introduction

Trees and Plants

Plants are the most Important Kingdom of an Organisms exist in our Ecosystem. Plants are multicellular (having more cells) Organism having surprising ability to prepare their own foods to get nourishment to their body and grow properly. Plants make their own foods with the help of photosynthesis process and Photosynthesis is a process in which all plants make their foods with the help of sunlight, carbon di-oxide and Water.

NOTE = Plants only do their photosynthesis Process when they contains chlorophyll pigments on their Leaf. if any Plant does not contains chlorophyll pigments, they can not do their photosynthesis process and do not prepare their own food for growth and become die. So, chlorophyll pigments are very essential for making their own foods.

dead plants due to lack of chlorophyll

And whole Process of photosynthesis are discussing below.

Suppose that If no any Plants are present around us then our life will not exist in Earth. hence, Our (all living beings) existence totally dependent upon plants and tree.

The Science in which we can deal about the plants, their properties, characteristics, Various types of plants and also their metabolic process are referred as BOTANY. And The person who will study about botany referred as Botanist.

[according to 2014 survey by INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR PLANT TAXONOMY, there are over 4.5 lakhs species of plants exist in the Earth.]
weeds as a plants

A plant is a kind of Living organism that exist in our ecosystem and plays an amazing Role in earth’s ecosystem and nature by absorbing carbon di-oxide and releasing oxygen. Example of some plants and tree is Banyan, Pine, Grasses and Ferns etc. Basically plants grow from a seed by absorbing mainly water and air by their body parts such as Roots, Stems, Leaf etc as well as grow by vegetative methods (Body part). The Plants that exist in our Earth, all have different shapes, size as well as colour.

Approx All plants or tree are formed of the combination of Four General Parts, that are-

  1. Roots = Roots are the Last part of a plant below to stem. Root helps plant in Respiration and take nutrients from soil with the help of Root hair on the root.
  2. Stems =  Stems are also an important Body part of plants which have stomata that helps in Respiration process in plants.
  3. Leaves = Leaves are the parts of plant that grow on Stem basically. Leaves contain chlorophyll pigments that helps in Photosynthesis process in plants.
  4. Flowers = Flowers also play an Important Role in Reproduction in Plants because they help in pollination process in Plants.

Botanical classification of plants-

  • Kingdom = Plantae.
  • Domain = Eukaryota.

Plant Physiology

Plant Physiology Refers to all Types of the Fundamental Processes that is working inside the plants and trees. Some fundamental process are following- Photosynthesis, Respiration, Transpiration, Plants Nutrition, Plants Harmones Function, Nastic Movements and Seeds Germination, etc.

There are Mainly three Fundamental processes come under Physiology of Plants, i.e.

  • Photosynthesis,
  • Nastic Movements, and
  • Immune System.
    Stomata(hole) in leaves

(1). Photosynthesis = Photosynthesis is the process in every plants for preparing their own foods such as glucose, starch etc from Carbon di-oxide and water by using sunlight Energy in the presence of chlorophyll. In this process, Oxygen Gas is released in the form of product. This is Shown in following reactions :

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Light energy ———– C6H12O6 + 6O2

The Process of Photosynthesis takes place in the green leaves of Plants, it means Food is made in Green leaves of Plants.

(2). Nastic Movements = Nastic Movements are the Basic movements in Plant’s Body Part in response to an external stimuli in which the direction of Response is not determined by the direction of Stimuli. For example-

  • In Dandelion Flower, the opening up of the petals of this flower in the morning in Bright Light But closing in
    Mimosa Pudica plant

    the evening when light become fade or dark; Here Stimuli is light.

  • In the Case of Sun Flower, the Direction of that flower is towards the SUN; Here the stimuli is sun light.
  • Also In the Case of Mimosa Pudica Plants, When we touch the leaves of plant then that leaves become shrink. Here the stimuli is TOUCH.

Types of Nastic movement – There are mainly 5 Types of Nastic movement present in Plants-

  1. Seismonastic Movement = This type of Movemeent is caused by some stimuli such as touch and Contact.
  2. Photonastic Movement  = Photo means light so, Light is that stimuli which is responsible for this Movement.
  3. Thermonastic Movement  = Rise up and Down in temperature is the reason of  Thermonastic Movement.
  4. Nyctinastic Movement  = This type of Movement  is caused due to Variation in Light and Temperature.
  5. Thigmonastic Movement  = This type of Movement  is due to contact of an objects with plants.

(3).Immune System in Plants = Plants are the only one organism that can prepare their own food itself by using water, carbon di-oxide and sunlight. all the raw materials for making their foods are present in their surrounding. the nutrients enable living organisms to build their bodies, to grow and to repair the damaged parts of their body and provide the energy to carry out the life processes.

In the case of plants, Leaves are the food factory and kitchen of the plants. therefore, All the raw materials must be reach to Leaf. Water and minerals are present into soil that are absorbed by roots of Plant and transported them to leaves. Carbon di-oxide  from air is taken in through the tiny pores present on the surface of leaves named as stomata.

Water and minerals are transported to the leaves by the vessels which run like pipes throughout the roots, the stem, the Branches and the leaves. They form a continuous path to reach that nutrients to leaf, They are called vessels.The leaves have green pigments called chlorophyll. These chlorophyll helps leaves to capture the energy of solar light. This energy is required for synthesized the foods from Carbon di-oxide and water. And the Whole process is called as Photosynthesis.

Types of Plants

There are over 4.5 lakhs plants species exist in our ecosystem, it means they exist in different- different region.However All plants are autotropes and prepare their own food with the help of photosynthesis process. But Scientist and researcher facing many problems for identification of plants. so, for exactly identification; Plants are categorized into mainly 4 types, that is-

  1. Mosses
  2. Ferns
  3. Gymnosperm
  4. Angiosperm
mosses covered all area of forest

(1). MOSSES

botanical classification-

  • Kingdom = Plantae
  • Clade = Embryophyte
  • Division = Bryophyta

Basically Mosses are Non-vascular Plants of Division “Bryophyta”. so, they are also known as Bryophytes. they are small herbaceous plants which means they have no woody stem. Mosses absorb water and nutrients only through their leaves and take Carbon di-oxide and sunlight to prepare the food by photosynthesis process.

mosses on wall

Vascular plants have 2 set of chromosomes so they are called diploid But Mosses have only a single set of chromosomes so they are also known as haploid; as this way, Mosses are differ from vascular Plants.

Habitat = Mosses are found in many place such as- coastal area forest, A cool high altitude region,  growing on basaltic rock, also grow on moisture containing wall, and also found on bricks.

(2). FERNS

botanical classification-

  • Kingdom = Plantae
  • Clade = Tracheophytes
  • Division = Polypodiopsida

Basically Ferns are one kind of vascular plants of division Polypodiopsida; Vascular Plants are that type of plants

Fern plants

which contains xylem and phloem. Ferns are also known as Pteridophytes. Reproduction of Ferns are occurs with the help of spores and the main properties of ferns is that they have neither any seeds nor flowers. Ferns are differ from the Mosses because Ferns have 2 set of chromosomes but mosses have only 1 set of chromosome. hence, ferns are diploid and mosses are haploid. Some example of Ferns are Lady Fern, common lady fern. These Green Plants improves humidity by helping to restore moisture to the air naturally too.

Types – There are so many types of ferns that is exist in our ecosystem. such as Holly Fern, Blue star fern, Button Fern, staghorn fern and so on.

Habitat – Ferns are mostly found in North America and North Maxico. Fern has more than 900 species. Ferns are growing Best in tropical and sub Tropical region and that place where Humidity is so High.

(3).Gymnosperm 

The Term “Gymnosperm” is derived from two Greek words that is-

  • Gymnos means Naked
  • Sperma means Seeds

botannical classification-

  • Kingdom = Plantae
    Gymnosperm
  • Sub- kingdom = Embryophyta

Hence, Literally Gymnosperm means ‘Naked Seed”. Gymnosperm is also known as Acrogymnospermae and also Cone-bearing Plants. Further, Gymnosperm  are divided into 6 Phyla-

  1. Cycadophyta
  2. Ginkgophyta
  3. Gnetophyta
  4. Pinophyta
  5. Pteridospermales
  6. Cordaitales Phyla

its Uses = Mainly, Gymnosperm are used for economic use. for example- Pine, Fir and cedar are the example of Gymnosperm  that are used for Paper and Resin Production. some Gymnosperm are used for making of Soap, perfume and Nail polish also.

(4).Angiosperm

Angiosperms

Botanical classification-

  • Kingdom = Plantae
  • Clade = Tracheophytes

Main Features-

  • They are also known as Flowering Plants, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta.
  • Having Flowering Organs.
  • In Angiosperm, Stamens with 2 pairs of pollen sacs.
  • Closed carpels enclosing the Ovules.
  • Have Endosperm Formation after division Fertilization and before the first division of Zygote.
  • They are able for Reproduction because they have flowers that helps in Pollination Process.

Uses-

Flowering plants

In India, Agriculture is permanently dependent upon Angiosperm because Angiosperm provides Various types of foods for Humans and also produce Forage for Livestock.

  • All plants from Poaceae Family they provide Grains such as Rice, Wheat, Barley, Maize and oats.
  • Plants from Brassicaceae Family, they produce Rapeseeds, Cabbage etc
  • All Plants from Rutaceae Family are produce many fruits.

Further Plants are divided into 5 Types- Herbs, Shrub, Trees, Climbers and Creepers.

Uses and Importance of Plants.

In Farming Sector, Cultivation of Plants is doing because of mainly 2 purpose- (1).for economic purpose and (2).for own use. There are many uses of plants in our life, such as In foods, In making of Medicines, Ornamental and religious purpose, and also In Scientific research, etc.

Nutrition in Plants

Generally, Nutrition is a process of in-taking of nutrients such as Carbohydrates fats vitamins minerals and water by an organism and utilization of those all nutrients by organism. Basically Nutrition has 2 modes

  1. Autotrophic Nutrition
  2. Heterotrophic nutrition

Like Other Animals, Plants also require foods and nutrients for supply of energy into their body for their various metabolic activities and they will grow in proper way. Plants come under Aututrophic type of Nutrition because they make their own food itself. so they prepare their foods with the help of Photosynthesis process. Photosynthesis process is the process done by Plants for making their own food (starch and Glucose) with the help of Carbon di-oxide, water in the presence of sunlight energy.

In this process, Oxygen Gas is released in the form of product. This is Shown in following reactions :

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Light energy ———– C6H12O6 + 6O2

The Process of Photosynthesis takes place in the green leaves of Plants, it means Food is made in Green leaves of Plants. The Green leaves of a plant make the food by combining CO2 and Water in the presence of Sunlight and chlorophyll.

The food prepared by green leaves of plant is in form of a simple sugar known as GLUCOSE. This glucose food made in the leaves is then sent to the different parts of plant. the extra glucose is changed into another food called Starch.

The Photosynthesis process takes place in the following steps-

  1. Absorption of sunlight energy by chlorophyll.
  2. Conversion of light energy into chemical energy with the help of chemical reaction inside the plants.
  3. Reduction of CO2 by Hydrogen to form glucose.

Reproduction in Plants

Reproduction is the process occurs in all living beings in which a new born baby is produce from its parent. Basically Reproduction is categorized into 2 types that is Sexual and Asexual Reproduction but In the Case of plants Reproduction is further categorized into 3 types that is Sexual, Asexual Reproduction and  Artificial propagation.

Sexual Reproduction-

Sexual Reproduction is a mode of reproduction that takes place when two sex cells (one is male and second is female sex cell) from two different Parents are combined with each other. Sex cells are also known as Gametes. and in Sexual reproduction, a male gamete fuses with a female gamete to form Zygote. Then this zygote grows and develops into a new baby.

Plants Reproductive part

Like Human beings, Sexual reproduction also occurs in Plants (only flowering Plants or Angiosperm). In Plants, the sex cell is present in Flowers of Plants In other words Flower contains reproductive organ of plants. There are 2 types of organ- Male Reproductive or Female reproductive organ. In most plants, same flower contains both reproductive organ (known as bi-sexual). And those flowers that contains only one sex organ are known as Uni sexual.

NOTE = Flower’s Male organ is called stamen and Female organs are called carpel. Stamen produces male gametes that are present in pollen grains and Carpel produces female gametes present in Ovules.

In Plant’s reproduction, A new seed is formed when the male gamete fuses with female gamete. The sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Occurs in 2 steps- POLLINATION and FERTILIZATION.

(1). Pollination-

Pollination is the process of the transfer of Pollen grains from Anther part of stamen to stigma part of a carpel. For reproduction, it is necessary that pollen grains are goes towards stigma. Some Factors that helps to transfer the pollen grains from stamen to carpel that organisms are called Pollination Agents Such as Insects (Bee & Butterfly), Bird, wind and water, etc.

cross pollination
Self Pollination

Pollination in plants occurs in 2 ways- Self Pollination and Cross pollination. Self pollination means when the pollen grains transfer from stamen to carpel in the same flower and Cross pollination means when the pollen grains transfer from stamen to carpel in different flower.

(2).Fertilization-

fertilization in Flower

After Pollination Process Fertilization is next step of Reproduction in Plants. Fertilization is the process that occurs when male gametes present in pollen grains combined with the Female gamete present in Ovule.  In Fertilization process, when pollen grains falls on the stigma of carpel then it bursts open and grow downward towards female gametes. Male gamete move downward through a pollen tube and the pollen tube enters the ovule in the ovary of a plant, As this way Male gamete reached into female gamete and further fertilize.

Asexual Reproduction –

An Asexual Reproduction is a mode of reproduction in which the production of new organism from a single parent without the involvement of any sex cell or gametes. In Asexual reproduction, A part of the parent Organism separates off and grow into a new organism.

There are six Different modes of Asexual Reproduction, i.e.

  1. Fission = In Fission, Only Uni cellular Organisms just split their body into two identical halves during cell division process. There are 2 types of fission i.e. Binary Fission (only two new organisms reproduce from their parent) And Multiple Fission (many new organisms are Born).
  2. Budding = In Budding Process, A small part of the body of the parent organism grow as a BUD after mature they detaches and become a new organism, such as Hydra is the best example of Budding.
  3. Spore Formation = In this mode, First of all the parent organism produces thousands of microscopic reproductive units known as SPORES, where these spore get nutrition it may grow into new born organism.
  4. Regeneration = Regeneration is the process of fully growing new organism from one small body part of its parent. Planaria worm is the best example of this.
  5. Fragmentation = Fragmentation is the mode of an asexual reproduction in which their is the breaking up of the body of a multicellular organism into 2 or more pieces and further each part grow into a new organism. It only occurs in Filament like organisms.
  6. Vegetative Propagation = In this mode of Asexual reproduction, New plants may grow from the parts of its parent plant. such as money plant can grow from its stem.

Artificial propagation of Plants-

Artificial Propagation means the process of growing many plants from one plant by man made methods. There are three common methods for Artificial propagation of Plants are:

  1. Cutting = In cutting, A small part of a plant which is removed by making a cut with a sharp knife.
  2. Layering = In Layering method, the Branch of the plant is pulled towards the ground and tip of the branch exposed above the ground.
  3. Grafting = In this method we cut stem of two different plants in which one is with stem or another is without stem, both are joined together such that both stem join and grow as single plant.

Some Advantages of Artificial Propagation-

  • new plant always exact as their parent plant.
  • We can also grow new plants without any seeds.
  • we can also get many plants from single plants.
  • we can also get seedless plants.

Important Facts about plants

  • The First Land Plants was exist around 470 million of years ago, They are Basically like MOSSES.
  • Photosynthesis Process is an important process for Plants and this was firstly discovered by JAN  INGENHOUSZ (1730-99).
  • MELVIN CALVIN was discovered the chemical Pathways of Photosynthesis. For this He got a nobel prize in 1961.
  • About 68,875 Plants species are used for making medicines.
  • In Our Earth,  more than 85,000 species of Edible plants exist.
  • approx 85% of plant life exist in the ocean.
  • Banana is only one tree that has no any type of woody stems.
  • Rafflesia arnoldii is the largest flower among the world.

 

plants description

See Also


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It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog ecohillagri.com to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.

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