POLYHOUSE FARMING : Overview Description, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages and Subsidy

General Introduction

polyhouse

What is polyhouse cultivation and Why most people are showing more interest in polyhouse cultivation?  since the centuries cultivation of crops is changing with different farming methods and the polyhouse is one of the modern farming methods using a controlled environment. Growing crops under controlled environment such as temperature, humidity, and fertilizers with the help of automated systems are called polyhouse cultivation. We will learn conditional factors of polyhouse cultivation and future of polyhouse cultivation in India.

  • Traditional cultivation in open fields has been always risky due to unpredictable climatic conditions and exposure to insects, pests and diseases.
  • To satisfy the growing population of food and other needs, it is mandatory to grow crops throughout the year without depending on external weather conditions.
    polyhouse
  • One can avail government schemes for polyhouse subsidy in most states of India. As one can expect up to 80% of polyhouse subsidy, you may end up paying only some amount from your pocket.
  • Apart from this, growing vegetables, and flowers is very easy when compared to open field cultivation.
  • People are trending towards polyhouse cultivation is due to more profits and one can grow crops throughout the year without depending on environmental factors and farmers have very few problems with crop pests and disease in polyhouse cultivation.

There are many advantages to growing crops in polyhouse-

  • Plants are grown in a controlled environment.
  • Crops can be grown throughout the year without depending on the season.
  • Insects, pests and disease are less in polyhouse cultivation.
  • External climate does not have any impact on plant growth.
  • The quality of products is high when compared to open field cultivation.
  • You can expect uniform plant growth throughout its life-cycle with less transplanting shock.
  • Polyhouse can be maintained with good sanitation.
  • Cropping period is less, hence one expects increased production capacity.
  • Polyhouse has always good drainage and aeration system for better plant growth.
  • Fertilizer application is very easy and controlled automatically with the help of drip as well as sprinkler irrigation.
  • Handling of harvest, grading of products, and transporting are easy with polyhouse cultivation.
  • The overall yearly crop yield is high.

There are some Disadvantages of polyhouse farming-

  • The establishment of Polyhouse is very costly.
  • Ventilated Polyhouses have to be unnecessarily taller than those with fan and pad, leading to wastage in metal costs.
  • wastage of labor charges during the construction phase.
  • More Technical skills are required.
  • Excessive Heat, particularly during the summers can make the poly house a slaughter house for plants. This isn’t the case for open field cultivation every-time.
  • Low quality films cause easy wear and tear in heavy rains, making crops vulnerable.
  • Lower replenishment of CO2 supply.

Difference between polyhouse and greenhouse-

Inside the polyhouse

Many farmers or other people have confusion about polyhouse or green house that both are either same or not. Polyhouse and greenhouse are protected structures for cultivation of certain crops. The greenhouse is made with glass so it is also called glasses, once the plants are growing it is termed as a greenhouse.

Polyhouse is made of polyethylene material. In fact, both considered as same, but the green house broad term being used.

Types of polyhouse cultivation system-

There are 2 categories of polyhouses can be constructed based on environmental control factors. that is-

  1. Natural ventilation polyhouse.
  2. Environmental control polyhouse.

(1).Natural ventilation polyhouse =This type of polyhouse will have natural ventilation and fogger system to prevent pests and diseases. The purpose of naturally ventilated polyhouse is to protect the plants from adverse climatic condition. These type of polyhouses have low cost to established.

(2).Environmental control polyhouse =In this type of polyhouse system, crops are grown around the year by providing controlled environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, fertilizer automation, CO2. These factors can extend the off-season crop production.

Further, these polyhouse systems are grouped into 3 subcategories, that’s name is:

  1. Low cost or low-tech polyhouse.
  2. Medium cost or medium-tech polyhouse.
  3. Expensive or hi-tech polyhouse.

(1).Low cost or low-tech polyhouse =This polyhouse system can be built with low-cost material and maintaining this system is very easy. Usually, the construction of polyhouse is carried out with local material such as wood and bamboo. Generally, UV film is being used as a cladding material. This type is suitable for cold climatic conditions. Temperature, humidity can be controlled by using shade nets. There are no any other controlled devices are used in this type.

(2).Medium cost or medium-tech polyhouse =In this system, the construction of polyhouse is carried out by galvanized iron pipes. To prevent any damage from the wind flow, the entire polyhouse structure is fixed to ground, and screws are attached to the structure of the house of canopy cover. In this system, temperature and humidity are controlled by arranging cooling pads, mists controllers along with thermostats and exhaust fans. This is pretty useful where the plants require good care throughout their life cycle.

(3).Expensive or hi-tech polyhouse =It includes an automatic control system for temperatures, humidity, fertilizers, irrigation and other complete environmental parameters for growing crops all the time.

Crops suitable for polyhouse cultivation-

(1).Vegetable crops:

tomato in polyhouse
  • Tomato
  • Cucumbers
  • Coriander
  • Eggplant(brinjal)
  • Lady finger
  • Green beans
  • Capsicum
  • Cabbage
  • Spinach
  • Chilli
  • Carrot
  • Micro greens
  • lettuce
  • Broccoli
  • Leafy vegetables

(2).Herbs:

flower cultivation inside polyhouse
  • Ginger
  • Turmeric

(3).Fruits:

  • Watermelon
  • Peaches
  • Strawberry
  • Raspberry
  • Citrus fruits. and many Ornamental plants and other such as Raising nursery plant seedlings.
flowers in polyhouse

Polyhouse cost, polyhouse profits and polyhouse subsidy-

Polyhouse cost depends on the type of system you choose and the construction area. Here are some details of the construction cost of Polyhouse. These figures may change time to time and region to region. Consider this as a ballpark estimate for polyhouse construction. The cost involved in Polyhouse construction depends upon the type of Polyhouse such as-

  • For low cost Polyhouse without exhaust fan systems and cooling pads= rs.400 to rs.500 per square meter.
  • Medium cost Polyhouse with cooling pads and exhaust fan systems(without automation)= rs.900 to rs.1200 per square meter.
    ornamental plants cultivation in polyhouse
  • Hi-tech Polyhouse with a fully automatic control system=rs.2500 to rs.4000 per square meter.

There are 2 types of Polyhouse costs, we can consider.

  1. Fixed cost= land, office room, labour room, packing room, cold storage room, and other fixed items like drip and sprinkler systems.
  2. Variable/recurring cost= manures, fertilizers, pests and disease control chemicals, planting materials, electricity, and transportation charges come under recurring expenses.

The following hi-tech Polyhouse/greenhouse cost is for 1 hectare or 2.5 acres land:

Fixed cost items (in Indian rupees) for Polyhouse subsidy-

Land and developmentrs. 4,50,000 /-
Office roomsrs. 3,00,000 /-
Telephone, fax, and computerrs. 1,00,000 /-
Polyhouse constructionrs. 14,00,000 /-
Planting materials and plantingrs. 30,00,000 /-
Cold storagers. 9,00,000 /-
Refrigerated transport vanrs. 2,00,000 /-
Grading and packing roomrs. 5,00,000 /-
Generator setrs. 2,50,000 /-
Power related installationsrs. 2,00,000 /-
Water supply system, drip/sprinkler irrigation, misting linersrs. 8,00,000 /-
Furniture relatedrs.  75,000 /-
Total fixed costrs. 81,75,000 /-

Recurring cost items (in Indian rupees) for Polyhouse subsidy-

Plant protectionrs.1,50,000 /-
Preservativesrs. 3,00,000 /-
Packing materialrs. 2,00,000 /-
Airfreightrs.1,20,00,000 /-
Labour chargesrs.3,00,000 /-
Commission / Insurancers.15,00,000 /-
Employee salariesrs.6,00,000 /-
Electricity charges/yearrs.6,00,000 /-
Overhead costsrs.1,00,000 /-
Maintenance costrs.1,00,000 /-
Miscellaneous expensesrs. 4,00,000 /-
Total recurring costrs. 1,64,00,000 /-

Total cost = fixed cost + recurring cost = rs 81,75,000 + rs 1,64,00,000 = rs 2,45,75,000 /- (2 cr. forty five lakhs seventy five thousand)

Polyhouse cultivation profits, Polyhouse project report and Polyhouse subsidy for 1 hectare rose cut flowers

rose in polyhouse

Just to calculate the Polyhouse profit, let us take rose cut flower cultivation for the project of above mentioned 1 hectare or 2.5 acres Polyhouse.

Rose cut flower project report for hi-tech Polyhouse  

  • Rose plant seedling/hectare of Polyhouse = 60,000
  • Rose flower yield/plant = 100 to 150
  • Quality rose flowers for export purpose/plant = 90 to 100
  • Rose flower cost in international market = rs. 8 to 12 per flower
  • Total exportable rose flower/ha at the rate of 125 rose flower/plant = 60,000 (total no. of rose plants) X 100 Rs (per flower) = rs.6,00,000
  • Gross income through exports at the rate of 55 flowers/plant = 6,00,000 X 55 = rs. 3,30,00,000 (minimum).

Net profit for first year = gross income – total cost = rs. 3,30,00,000 – rs. 2,45,75,000 = rs. 84,25,000 /-

Here are some Polyhouse profits details for different crops.

  • Gerbera flowers = 42 to 45 lakhs/acre
  • Ginger = 15 to 16 lakhs/acre
  • Turmeric = 14 to 15 lakhs/acre
  • Tomato = 12 to 13 lakhs/acre
  • Coloured capsicum = 13 to 15 lakh/acre
  • Dutch rose = 34 to 35 lakh/acre
  • Cucumber = 9 lakhs/acre

Note: the above said figures subject to change depending on flower quality/export market demand. However, you can obtain 5 to 7 times of yield and profits in Polyhouse cultivation than open-field farming.

Polyhouse subsidy-

medicinal plants cultivation in polyhouse

There are many states in India encouraging polyhouse cultivation practices. Each state has different subsidy %. You can get up to 80% of the subsidy. From above mentioned project (1 hectare cut flowers) 80% of total cost = 0.8 X 2,45,75,000 = 1,96,60,000 (is your subsidy amount) remaining 48 lakh 40 thousand should be spent from your pocket.

Your horticulture department or any NABARD branch or national horticulture board is the point of contact to inquire about the exact % for Polyhouse subsidy for different state in India. You can apply this information for Polyhouse subsidy in Karnataka, Polyhouse subsidy in Tamilnadu, Polyhouse subsidy in telangana, Polyhouse subsidy in Maharashtra, Polyhouse subsidy in Andhra Pradesh, Polyhouse subsidy  Bihar, Polyhouse subsidy in Uttar Pradesh, Polyhouse subsidy west Bengal, Polyhouse subsidy in Gujarat, Polyhouse subsidy in Haryana, Polyhouse subsidy in Rajasthan, etc.

 

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It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog ecohillagri.com to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.

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