Soil and types of soil in India : Overview, Description and 11 types of soil

Indian Zones

Our Country India (come under Asia continent) is Situated between the Latitudes of 08º4′ to 37°06′ N and longitude 68°7′ to 97°25′ E , has geographical area of 329 mha. And, many various types of soil found in various Region of India; we discuss all types of soil in India in this Blog. the soils are basically divided into 11 types (according to their physical properties such as- color, Ph Value, their formation, etc.) in India. that is

  1. Red Soil
  2. Laterite Soil
  3. Black Soil
  4. Alluvial Soil
  5. Desert Soil
  6. Saline and Alkaline Soil
  7. Peaty and Marshy Soil
  8. Tarai Soil
  9. Brown Hill Soil
  10. Sub Mountain Soil
  11. Mountain Meadow Soil

These all are the Various types of Soil in India.


Red Soil in India-

Red Soil

COLOR = Red soil is basically Red in color due to presence of various oxide of Iron (Fe). This is the basic soil in India.

ELEMENTS FOUND IN THEM –

  1. Rich elements = Iron
  2. Deficiency = N, P, K, lime and Organic Matter

AREA WHERE IT FOUND = Chennai, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisa, Chhotanagpur in Bihar, West Bengal, Rajasthan and Also found in Humid and sub Humid Region.

CROPS = Wheat, Millet, Gram, Sugarcane, etc.

PH = 6.0 to 7.5

MAIN PROPERTIES –

  • They have low Base Exchange capacity.
  • They have light Texture it means having light particles.
  • They have low solubility of salt.
  • Lower most Area is Dark in Color so, they are very fertile but upper layer is not so.

OTHER NAME = Red Sandy Soil and Red Alluvium.

FORMATION-

  • They are formed by the products of decomposition of Rocks such as Granite and Shaler. Shaler are found in Mars.
  • Condition = Formed under Humid and sub Humid climatic condition.

Black soil in India-

Black Soil

COLOR = Black soil is basically Black or Dark Brown in color.

ELEMENTS FOUND IN THEM –

  1. Rich elements = Potash and Lime
  2. Deficiency = N, P

AREA WHERE IT FOUND = Chennai, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisa, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Also found in Maharashtra.

CROPS = Wheat, Millet, cotton, Sugarcane, etc.

PH = 7.5 to 8.5

MAIN PROPERTIES –

  • They have the property of shrink and crack in summer.
  • It swell on Rainy Season.
  • They have High Base Exchange capacity.
  • They are low in Fertile.
  • Their Particles may be compact to each other.
  • Texture Range = From Sandy loam to heavy clay.

OTHER NAME = Regur Soil; Black cotton soil, Deep Black Soil; Medium Black Soil.

FORMATION-

  • They are formed by the Basaltic Rocks under Semi Arid Condition.

BROWN HILL SOIL-

Brown Hill Soil

COLOR = Brown Hill soil is basically Yellowish Brown to Strong Brown in color. This type of soil in India are basically found in hilly area.

ELEMENTS FOUND IN THEM –

  1. Rich elements = Iron
  2. Deficiency = lime and Organic Matter

AREA WHERE IT FOUND-

  • Found in Hill Area.
  • Found in Himalayas on Sandstone.

CROPS = Tea, Coffee, Crops grow in Hill Area.

PH = 5.0 to 6.5

MAIN PROPERTIES –

  • Rainfall are usually below 76 cm per Year.
  • Approx no any Elements are deficient so all Plants can be grown.
  • Soil reaction = Acidic to Neutral.
  • Texture Range = Dark Brown Loam to Silty clay in Texture.

OTHER NAME = Forest Soil.

FORMATION-

  • They are formed on the hills under Forest.

Alluvial soil in India-

Alluvial is the main types of Soil in India
Alluvial soil

COLOR = Alluvial soil is basically Gray to grayish brown in color.

ELEMENTS FOUND IN THEM –

  1. Rich elements = Lime
  2. Deficiency = N, P, Humus.

AREA WHERE IT FOUND = West Assam, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Rajasthan and North Gujarat.

CROPS = Wheat, cotton, Rice, Sugarcane, and Jute, etc.

PH = 7.0 to 8.0

MAIN PROPERTIES –

  • They are characterized by extreme Depth.
  • Texture range = Sandy Loam to clay Loam.
  • Structures = Loose Particles, Free Drainage found in sandy or compact nature in Clayey.
  • They have low base Exchange Capacity.
  • They are highly Fertile in Nature.
  • They have two types-
  1. Khadar = Khadar are Newly Alluvial Soil and are basically in Pale Brown color. They are found in Lower area flooded Region.
  2. Bangar = Basically Bangar are Older Alluvial Soil and are Dark in color. They are coarse in nature and contains only Kanker and Pebbles. They are found in near the Himalayan River.

FORMATION-

  • They are formed in Western part of Indo Gangetic Plains.

Laterite soil in India-

Laterite soil

COLOR = Laterite soil is basically Rusty Red in color due to presence of high iron oxide content.

ELEMENTS FOUND IN THEM –

  1. Rich elements = Iron and Iron
  2. Deficiency = lime

AREA WHERE IT FOUND = Odisa, Madhya Pradesh, Keral, Western Maharastra.

CROPS = Tea, Coffee, Rubber and coconut, etc.

PH = 5.0 to 6.0

MAIN PROPERTIES –

  • They have low Base Exchange capacity.
  • They are poor in fertile.
  • Soil Reaction = Slightly to moderetly Acid.
  • They have free Drainage Structure.
  • No Retention of water.
  • They have light Texture in structure.
  • They are mostly found in areas of high Rainfall.

FORMATION-

  • They are formed at high level have a pale color and poor in elements.
  • They are formed at low level have dark er color due to great accumulation in color.

SUB MOUNTAIN SOIL-

COLOR = Sub Mountain soil is basically Pale Brown in color.

ELEMENTS FOUND IN THEM –

  1. Rich elements = Organic Matter, Carbon and Humus.
  2. Deficiency = lime and potash

AREA WHERE IT FOUND = Hilly Area of Jammu and Kashmir, Assam, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.

CROPS = Tea, Beans, corn and various variety of vegetables, etc.

PH = 5.5-7.0 (Mostly acidic in reaction).

MAIN PROPERTIES –

  • They are highly fertile in nature.
  • They occupy about 8 % of total land area of India.
  • They are Heterogeneous in Nature it means they contain many elements in Different proportion and ratio.
  • They are Acidic in nature with low humus content in snow covered Area.
  • Soil is Loamy and Silty in Valley Sides.

FORMATION-

  • They are formed in High Rainfall Region of Sub Himalayan Under coniferous Forest.

Mountain Meadow soil in India-

COLOR = Mountain Meadow soil is basically Yellow Brown and Distinct Brown in color.

ELEMENTS FOUND IN THEM –

  1. Rich elements = Organic Matter, Humus and Carbon.
  2. Deficiency = lime and Potash.

AREA WHERE IT FOUND = Assam, Kashmir, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh.

CROPS = Tea, Coffee, Spices and tropical Fruits, etc.

PH = Approx Similar to Hill or Mountain Soil.

MAIN PROPERTIES –

  • These soils are shallow with Grass Vegetation.
  • The Term Meadow Is Derived from the Word which means the field of Grass.

FORMATION-

  • These soils occurs at the high elevation or Slope in the Himalayan.

If you wants to know what types of soil in in your Area, then click this Link-  http://www.clearias.com/different-soil-types-india-understand-differences/

 


SALINE AND ALKALINE SOIL-

COLOR = Saline or Alkaline soil is basically white in color due to Presence of Chloride and Sulphate of Sodium that is NaCl and Na2So4.

ELEMENTS FOUND IN THEM –

  1. Rich elements = Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium, Chlorine, Sulphur, Potash and Boron.
  2. Deficiency = Humus and Organic Matter, Carbon, Phosphorus.

AREA WHERE IT FOUND = These soils are mainly found in Black Soil Region in Coastal Region and Indo Gangetic Plains.

CROPS = Sorghum, Sugar beets, Many Grasses such as Bermuda Grass.

PH = below 8.5

MAIN PROPERTIES –

  • These soils have both soluble salt and exchangeable Sodium.
  • Soil reaction =Strongly Alkaline Because of Hydrolysis of Exchangeable Sodium.
  • Soil Aeration= Good
  • They have Poor Drainage Capacity.

FORMATION-

  • The Process by Which the Saline soil formed is called Salinization.
  • Soil are formed in Arid and Semi Arid Region.

Peaty and Marshy soil in India-

COLOR = Peaty and Marshy soil is basically Red to Brown in color due to Excess presence of Iron.

ELEMENTS FOUND IN THEM –

  1. Rich elements = Organic Matter
  2. Deficiency = Nitrogen, Potash and Phosphorus, Carbon.

AREA WHERE IT FOUND = Kerala, North Bihar and North Uttar pradesh.

CROPS = Rice, Wheat, Sugarcane and Jute.

PH = Acidic (1 to 7)

MAIN PROPERTIES –

  • They contain excess salt of sodium and Potassium.

FORMATION-

  • They are formed in Humid Region.
  • They are formed in depression under submerged condition.

Tarai soil in India-

Tarai soil in India
Tarai soil

COLOR = Tarai soil is basically Gray to Yellow in color.

ELEMENTS FOUND IN THEM –

  1. Rich elements = Nitrogen and Organic matter
  2. Deficiency = Phosphorus

AREA WHERE IT FOUND = Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar

CROPS = Wheat, Rice, Sugarcane and Jute, etc.

MAIN PROPERTIES –

  • They have High Water table condition.
  • These soils are foothill Soil.

FORMATION-

  • These soils were developed from the materials that washed down means decomposed by the erosion of Mountains.

Desert soil in India-

COLOR = Desert soil may be Gray, Brown or Brick red in color.

ELEMENTS FOUND IN THEM –

  1. Rich elements = Nitrates and Phosphate
  2. Deficiency = Humus

AREA WHERE IT FOUND = Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Gujarat.

CROPS = Draught Resistant Crops such as Millets and barley.

PH = 4.4 to 7.9

MAIN PROPERTIES –

  • They Contain Low Moisture.
  • They also contain 90 % sand and 5 % clay.
  • Rainfall = 50 cm to less than 10 cm.
  • They are soluble in Salt.
  • They are Poor in fertility.
  • These soils are mainly sandy soil.

FORMATION-

  • They are developed in Arid region and also in Semi Arid Region under the influence of Physical weathering. This types of soil in India (Basically in desert Region).
  • They developed in Arid and Semi Arid Region.

 

See Also


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It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog ecohillagri.com to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.

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