Soil Temperature and Heat Flow: Definition, effects and maintenance of Soil in good manner

Crack the Soil surface due to high Soil temperature

Soil is a naturally body that is formed by the influence of weathering Process acting on Regolith or Parent materials(such as-Rocks and minerals) over a period of time. And Soil is composed of mineral and organic constituents, having a definite component proportion and have a distinct nature. It also Provides the Shelter to many organisms who live inside the Soil such as Snake, Rabbit and mouse also. the Properties of Soil is affected by many factors such as Soil temperature, Presence of Organic Matter, Soil moisture and so on. And Below we Discuss all About Soil Temperature and other topic Related to this.

Heat Flow-

When the sun shines and Solar radiation (light Energy) strike on the soil surface, some of the energy is absorbed inside the soil by their Particles, And warm the surface of soil through many Processes Such as- the conduction to lower layers of the soil, through heating the atmosphere, and through evaporation of water.

Heat flow offers two major Contribution to the soil and crop Science. i.e.,

  1. It describe energy Partition at soil Surface.
  2. Describe Soil temperature Distribution.

There are three mechanisms that are responsible for Heat Flow- that is,

  1. Radiation
  2. Conduction, and
  3. Convection

(1). Radiation = Radiation is defined as the Emission and transmission of Energy in the form of Electromagnetic Waves. It includes many types of electromagnetic radiation, such as micro waves, infrared waves, radio waves,  visible light, and ultraviolet also.

(2). Conduction = It is a Primary mode of heat transfer in Soil. Conduction is the process in which heat energy is directly transmitted through the material.

(3). Convection = Convection is defined as the transfer of latent heat of vaporization during convection of Water vapor. Convection occurs due to the bulk motion of molecules within fluids ( it includes gases and liquids ).

Absorption Of Soil Heat-

We know that the Soil is a natural body that consists of many constituent such as Organic matter, Dark material as well as essential elements And that all Constituent material have ability to absorb and Store heat energy also. The Soil surface with clean vegetation may absorb more heat energy during sun Shine in Day.

Factor that affect Absorption-

  • Color
  • Slope
  • Vegetative Cover

Heat Storage of Soil-

There are Basically two types of Heat Storage exist in Soil-

  • Daily Heat Storage
  • Annually Heat Storage

Daily Heat Storage –

  • At Day time = Soil as a Sink of heat.
  • At Night time = Soil as a Source of heat.

Annually Heat Storage –

  • In Summer time = Soil stored heat.
  • In Winter = Soil release heat.

Heat Storage affects-

  1. Root Spread of Plants.
  2. It affects Soil Respiration.
  3. It affects Photosynthesis.

Soil Temperature-

Thermometer measure the Soil Temperature
Soil Thermometer

Temperature is the degree of Hotness and Coldness of any material and Particle. And  Soil temperature is an important for Soil to get nutrients and transfer of all essential elements & nutrients to Plant for their Proper Growth. An Ideal soil temperatures for planting most plants are 65 to 75° F i.e., 18 to 24° C.

  • Plant growth as well as their Physical, Chemical and Biological activities.
  • It depends on the absorption of Solar Radiation.
  • It provides suitable medium for optimum growth of activity of micro organism, germination, nutrients movement, etc.
  • It also affect the microbial Activity inside the Soil both directly or Indirectly.

If You want to know the current soil temperature in your Area then Click here to know-  []

The amount of heat that enters the soil is controlled by-

  • Climate
  • Color of Soil
  • Altitude
  • Vegetation and cover of Land

Effect of Soil temperature on Plant’s Growth-

  • Germination Of Seeds.
  • Proper Growth and Development of Plants.
  • Microbial Activity in Plants as well as Soil.
  • Metabolic Power of Plants.
  • Decomposition of an Organic Matter in the Soil.
  • Absorption of Water.
  • Root Growth.
  • Plant Disease.

These all above things are affected by Soil Temperature.

Importance of Soil temperature in Agriculture Sector –

  1. It Promotes the Chemical and Biological Activities in Soil.
  2. All Vital Processes can be continued between 5 to 25 degree Celsius Temperature.
  3. Soil Temperature affect the Plants Growth and their Physical and Chemical Properties.
  4. It also affect the soil Fertility Power.
  5. It affects the Yields of Crop.
  6. It also affect the Reproductive Stage.
  7. It also affects- Germination, Evaporation, and Photosynthesis rate.
  8. Decomposition of an Organic Matter, Mineralization of Nitrogen, Germination of Seed and Plants.
When Soil Temperature reaches atWhat happens
1. 70 degree F100 Percent Moisture left
2. 90 degree FPlants growth Slow
3. 100 degree F15 Percent moisture left but 85 percent Moisture loss
4. 113 degree FSome Bacteria Species start dying
5. 130 degree F100 percent moisture is lost through Evaporation and Transpiration.
6. 140 degree FMost Essential Soil Bacteria dies


Why is Soil Temperature Important-

  • Soil Temperature is an essential Factor that affect the Germination of Seeds.
  • It directly affects Plant growth.
  • It also affect the metabolic Power.
  • Many microbial Activity in Plants as well as Soil are best in Optimum temperature.
  • It affects the fertility of Soil.
  • It also influences moisture content in Soil.
  • It affect the availability of Plants nutrients.
  • Impact on the Rate of Nitrification, Nitrogen Fixation and all other essential natural Cycles.
  • It also affect the Soil Ph as well as Soil Color.
  • Soil Temperature affect the Root growth of Plants.

Methods to measure the Temperature in Soil –

measure soil Temperature digitally
Digital Soil Thermometer

Soil Thermometer are the most common  Tool for measuring Soil temperature.

There are Special Temperature Guage used by Some Farmers and Soil sample Companies, But the Standard Digital Thermometer will work for General Soil health assessment.

Soil Heat –

Soil Heat refers to the capability of Soil to retain the Heat energy inside it.

Radiation of Sun heat many Substances such as trees, mountain’s surfaces, land, Soil and Water of Ocean also. In the Case of Soil and Water, Soil absorb more radiation than water. because the most land are darker than water and we know that dark things are greater absorber of Light and other energy than Bright things and one Fact is also true that water reflect back solar light (energy) to the atmosphere that strikes its surface. And Soil are much darker than water so soil absorb heat energy of Solar Radiation. Thus, Soil warm more quickly than water and also heat up fast during Sun Shine.

Source of Soil Heat-

  • Increasement in Solar Radiation.
  • Conduction Process.
  • Bio Chemical Reaction.
  • Rain
  • Precipitation.

Factors that affect Soil Heat-

  • Radiation
  • Conduction
  • Evaporation, and
  • Precipitation.

Loss of Soil Heat –

Loss of Heat Energy from the Particle of Soil. Losses of Soil Temperature and Heat through some Process that are-

  • Radiation
  • Conduction
  • Evaporation
  • Rain




See Also

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It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.

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