Introduction about Vegetable Production in India-
Vegetable Production is the growing of vegetables for the purpose of human utilization and also for marketing purpose. Vegetable Production is the practice that was started over the world for 8 to 10 thousand years ago, with the purpose of their families utilization. But now it is also used for marketing purpose also. Sometimes, Vegetable Production is also called as Vegetable Farming.
The original meaning of Vegetable is applied to refer to all edible plant material and their Parts such as stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, roots, etc. Generally Vegetables are the parts of plant that are utilized by humans and also by other animals as a food materials. And vegetables are any part of the herbaceous plant that is generally used after cooking as a Basic part of our food. Vegetables are full of Vitamins, minerals and some other elements that affects our Growth.
The science in Which we deals with the study of Vegetables are called Olericulture. The term Olericulture is derived from the two words that is (1). Oleris which means Potherb and (2).Cultra which means cultivation. Hence, Olericulture means the cultivation of potherb. In the present days, the term Olericulture indicates the cultivation of vegetables and vegetable Production. such as Lady Finger, onion, Tomato, potatoes, etc. In Olericulture, we also learn about the Botanical Classification of Vegetables, for example –
|COMMON NAME||BOTANICAL NAME||FAMILY|
|Cabbage||Brassica oleracea var. capitata||Brassicaceae|
|Cauliflower||Brassica oleracea var. botrytis||Brassicaceae|
|Beet root||Beta Valguris||Amaranthaceae|
|Turnip||Brassica rapa subsp. rapa||Brassicaceae|
And in Our Business as well as Farming sector, Vegetables plays an important role because Among the whole Agriculture; vegetable is one of the best methods of earning money more than other sectors. So Vegetable Production is Best method for earning more income.
In India, All state produce a various types of Vegetables. But Uttar Pradesh is highest vegetable production state in India today. According to the Data of 2018, Uttar Pradesh is the state that produced the largest share of vegetables in India. so Uttar Pradesh is leading state in India for Vegetable Production.
India also exported various types of Vegetable to foreign country such as UK, America, Germany and Bangladesh in large quantity, As this way Vegetable production also make foreign Exchange. so it is also a high earning business for us.
For Exporting – First of all, we need to do a thorough research of market. Access the degree of competition and study the current export trends. Since we intend to export vegetables; we should get the information the same product by other manufacturers related to their pricing, marketing techniques etc. Again find out prospective buyers in different countries. Then to get the assurance of receiving money after export and avoidance of credit risk or currency risk; insist upon an irrevocable LETTER OF CREDIT from overseas buyer. India grow a surplus amount of Vegetable so vegetables also exported from India via getting approval by APEDA website https://apeda.gov.in/apedawebsite/.
Importance Of Vegetables
(1). In our national economy-
- Vegetable Production Plays a significant role in Indian Agriculture.
- Vegetable Production also make foreign Exchange.
- It contributes 30 to 35 % GDP from 11.73 % of its arable Land.
- India is in second position in Vegetable Producing (108.25 Mt).
- Furthermore, only a small fraction of vegetables are utilized for processing (less than 1 %) and exported (vegetables -1.7%) compared as other country.
(2). In Our Life (Body) –
- Vegetables are immense significance to man.
- Being Rich Source of carbohydrate, vitamins and Minerals – these constitute an important part of our daily diet.
- Various types of Vegetables provide a variety in Taste, interest and aesthetic use.
- The main objective of utilizing of Vegetables is to minimize the occurrence of some Dangerous Diseases.
Factors Affecting vegetable production in India-
Soil and environment; both are the major Factors that affect Vegetable production. For Proper Growth, Vegetables need good soil and good environment and also for better production. These soil and environmental factors are responsible for yield variation of vegetables crop production. In India various soil are found. so we need to study about the Factors that affect Vegetable production in India. Soil Factors include Soil texture, Soil Ph, Soil Fertility, Soil reaction and soil nutrients, etc. And Environmental Factors include Light, Temperature, Moisture and insects, Diseases and so on.
Some Factors are describe below that is responsible for the variation of the yield of vegetable production-
- Light = Light intensity, Light Direction and Light Duration comes under Light Factors.
Sunlight is essential for any crop but Various types of plants differ in their light requirements. The light intensity changes according to its elevation, latitude, and season. The total amount of light received by a crop plant is also affected by cropping systems and crop density. In condition of light Intensity, more intensive light may increase the photosynthesis process that’s why the plant may grow properly.
- Temperature = Temperature affects photosynthesis Rate, water and nutrient absorption, and many process such as transpiration, respiration, and enzyme activity in Plants. These factors also affects the germination, flowering, pollen transferring, yield of crops, quality of Grains, harvest duration, and shelf life of Plants. And that Temperature in which Plants can grow fastly, are called Optimum temperature. Various types of plants need different temperature. Such as for species crops, their optimum temperature range lie around 25ºC.
- Moisture = Basically Moisture comes under Water Factor. Water is most essential factors for growth of vegetables. Water should increase the Photosynthesis Rate in Plants and they grow in proper way.
- Draught = Drought means the period without any kind of soil moisture. Droughts should lead to vegetable water scarcity. Draught Period Generally being when the water content of the soil is less than 50% of field capacity. The main symptoms of Drought are wilting, craking of fields of farm, twisting of leaves. In High Draught Period, Plant may die.
- Soil Fertility = Basically A fertile soil is usually rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, Humus, Organic Matter, and contains the traces of elements that improves soil Texture and soil water retention. So, For a healthy Vegetable Plant; a fertile soil is very important. because they get required elements for their nutrition.
- Soil Ph = Soil pH is an important factors that also affects the production of vegetables. Soil pH is the Power of Hydrogen that measure the acidity or alkalinity of soil. and it also affects the vegetables Production indirectly by availability of nutrients and the activity of micro organisms. Mostly important Nutrients are found at the pH levels between 6.5 and 7.5.
- Minerals = Like Human and other Animals, Vegetable crops or other crops also required essential minerals for their healthy and Normal Growth. Minerals are a type of Nutrients. Each Mineral plays a different role in Plants life cycle.
- Nutrients = Nutrients are also essential for Plant’s proper growth. Basically Nutrients are those elements that provides nutrition to our Health that helps our growth. For example – N, C, Fe, P, S, etc.; Further Nutrients are sub divided into 2 categories that is -(a). Macro nutrients = Macro nutrients are that nutrients which is taken in large Amount. For example-N, Fe, Ca, etc.
(b). Micro nutrients = Micro nutrients are that nutrients which is taken in small amount. For example- S, Al, K, etc.
- Diseases and insects = Insects, Pests and Diseases also affect the Production of Vegetables. Insects and Diseases Causes of damage to Vegetable production and its Storage. In Tropical Area these pests may cause production losses approaching 60 to 70 % in stored Products. so These are the viral factor that directly affects vegetable crops production.
Vegetable Farming is nothing but production of various types of Vegetables for mainly Two Purpose- (1). for Own utilization and (2). For Marketing Use. Vegetable Farming is better source of earning income from its yield that is 5 to 10 times more than cereals crop per unit Area. Vegetable Farming also helps us to solve the problem of Unemployment.
Basically it is categorized into mainly 7 types, that is –
- Home Garden
- Market Garden
- Truck Garden
- Garden For vegetable Processing
- Vegetable Farming For seed Production
- Vegetable forcing
- Floating Garden
(1). Home Garden = Home Garden is also known as Kitchen Garden. The Growing of Vegetable crops in the Backyard of our House to complete the Requirement of our family only. Such Type of Farming is Practiced mainly in Cities.
Advantages of Home Garden-
- Completely consumption of our Lands.
- Yield of Vegetable be increased.
- No any type of Toxic Chemicals are used.
- Supply of pure Fresh Foods.
Disadvantages of Home Garden-
- Attacking of some animals such as cat, rat, and Monkey, etc.
- more skill is required.
- Limiting land is available for it.
(2). Market Garden = Market garden is the type of Vegetable farming that is Practiced around the cities with a purpose to supply that vegetables in nearby Local Market. Basically These type of Farming is done up to 15 to 20 Km distance from the cities. In Market Garden, It is necessary that the Gardener should be a good salesmen to sell their Products.
(3). Truck Garden = Truck garden is the type of Vegetable farming in which production of some special crops in relatively large quantities for distant market. This vegetable farming follows more extensive and less intensive method of vegetable production.
(4). Garden for vegetable Processing = The Production of vegetables with a sole purpose of supplying them to a Processing Factories to be processed into canned, dehydrated, frozen, Sauce and Pickles, etc.
(5). Vegetable Farming for Seed Production = Vegetable seed Production is highly specialized Job and requires more technical skills for doing this type of farming, these method is adopt in Large Scale for More Production Of seeds from vegetable crops.
- Net income is sometimes more than Truck gardening.
- These Type of farming capture more foreign markets.
- Pollination in hybrid seed production can provide an employments to many people.
(6). Vegetable forcing = Vegetable forcing is one of the types of Vegetable Production or farming in Which the cultivation of vegetables out of their normal condition under protective condition. The Best example of Vegetable Forcing is that crops which are grown in Poly house or green house.
- Supply off seasonable vegetables.
- More income earn per unit Area.
- Very Costly.
- Limited choice of vegetables for their cultivation.
(7). Floating garden = In this Garden; The Production of vegetables in Lakes on the floating base. It is highly Specialized type of farming. Generally it is done in Dal Lake of Kashmir.
These are some Types and methods of vegetable Production in India that are discuss above.
- Soil Pollution- Danger for Agriculture
- SOIL : Found in India
- Soil Science
- POLYHOUSE FARMING
It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog ecohillagri.com to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.