Vegetables and Vegetable Market : An Overview about best Farming and top 15 producer of veggies

Overview about Vegetables and Vegetable market-


The vegetables are any part of the herbaceous plants that is generally used after cooking as a Basic part of our food. Vegetables are the parts of plant that are utilized by humans and also by other animals as a food materials. And we can sell our own produced Vegetables in National Vegetable market or International Vegetable market and export them also.

One Important Terminology comes under this Subject, i.e., Olericulture. Generally, Olericulture is the science in Which we deals with the study of Vegetables and their Cultivation. Further The term Olericulture is derived from the two words that is (1). Oleris which means Potherb and (2).Cultra which means cultivation. Hence, Olericulture means the cultivation of potherb. In the present days, the meaning of Olericulture  become changed and indicates the cultivation of vegetable. such as cultivation of Lady Finger, onion, Tomato, potatoes, etc. In Olericulture, we also learn about the Botanical Classification of Vegetables and At the end we study about vegetable market where we can sell our Products.

The Eating Parts of Vegetables are their body Parts like Flowers, Stems, Leaves, Roots,Seeds and Fruits, etc.

StemsGreen Leafy Vegetables, Celery
LeafTurnip, Green Leafy Vegetables
RootRadish, Carrot, Turnip
SeedsPes, Beans, Cucumber
Fruits (Bulb)Pumpkin, Bitter gourd, Cucumber

Vegetable includes that food also which are derived from some Plants such as Fruits, Flowers, Nuts, and Cereals grains, etc.

Fresh Vegetables from Garden
Fresh Vegetables after Harvesting

Vegetables can be eaten in Both way, i.e., Either Raw or Cooked. And It also Plays a surprising Role in Human as well as Animal’s Nutrition. because Approx all vegetables are Full of many types of vitamins, minerals, Carbohydrates, Fibers and other Elements such as Iron, Potassium, Calcium and Phosphorus, etc. These all are essential for our proper Growth.

In Different Region of India, People utilize different Parts of Same vegetable. For example – In North Indian Region, People utilize only flowers of cauliflower not utilize its leaf But in West Bengal Side, People also eat both flower and leaf of Cauliflower.

In Science, We Know about vegetable with their Botanical Classification ( Botanical Classification)  not by their common Name. such as During Study of Science, we call Allium cepa for Onion.

So, Some Botanical Classification of common Vegetables with their common name are listed below-

OnionAllium   cepaAmaryllidaceae
GarlicAllium   sativumAmaryllidaceae
PotatoSolanum   tuberosumSolanaceae
TomatoSolanum   lycopersicumSolanaceae
CabbageBrassica   oleracea  var.  capitataBrassicaceae
CauliflowerBrassica  oleracea  var.   botrytisBrassicaceae
Beet rootBeta  ValgurisAmaranthaceae
TurnipBrassica  rapa  subsp. rapaBrassicaceae
RadishRaphanus sativusBrassicaceae
PeaPisum SativumFabaceae


Classification Of Vegetables

Further Vegetables are Classified into Six Types-

(1). Botanical classification-

RadishRaphanus  sativusBrassicaceae18
PotatoSolanum  tuberosumSolanaceae24
Beet rootBeta ValgurisAmaranthaceae18
CauliflowerBrassica  oleracea  var. botrytisBrassicaceae18
TurnipBrassica rapa subsp. rapaBrassicaceae20
PeaPisum SativumFabaceae14
CabbageBrassica  oleracea  var. capitataBrassicaceae18
GarlicAllium  sativumAmaryllidaceae16
TomatoSolanum  lycopersicumSolanaceae24
OnionAllium  cepaAmaryllidaceae16

(2). On the Basis of rate of Respiration-

Vegetable is of 2 types:

  1. Climacteric Vegetable = Tomato, Watermelon
  2. Non Climacteric vegetable = Cucumber

(3). On the Basis of Isolation Distance-

Vegetable is of 3 types:

  1. Self Pollinated = Tomato, Beans and Pea
  2. Cross Pollinated = other rest
  3. Often Cross Pollinated = okra and chili

(4). On the Basis of Aroma containing compound-

Vegetable is of several types:

  1. Nonadienal = cucumber
  2. Di methyl pyrazine = potato
  3. Iso thiocynate = Radish
  4. Allyl Propyl disulphide = Onion
  5. Di allyl disulphide = Garlic

(5). On the Basis of Photoperiod-

Vegetable is of 3 types:

  1. Long Day Plant = Potato, Onion, Cabbage.
  2. Short Day Plant = Bean and Sweet Potato.
  3. Day Neutral Plant = Tomato, Cow pea and Chili.

(6). On the Basis of Methods of sowing-

Vegetable is of 2 types:

  1. Direct Seedling = Carrot, Radish and Beans.
  2. Transplanted = Cauliflower, Brinjal, Chili.

Cultivation Practices of Vegetables

Vegetable garden
Domestic Vegetable Garden in India


Vegetables are full of many types of minerals, vitamins, fibers and carbohydrate also. so, vegetables become an important part of Human’s Daily Diet, it means Human take in vegetable as their meal Daily. Some Vegetable are used to make several delicious foods (meals) for their unique Flavors, taste and Nutrients component which are good for our Health.

According to their Life cycle; Vegetable is of 3 types-

  • Annual
  • Biennial, and
  • Perennial

Some vegetables are Perennial but mostly are Annual and Biennial. so, Annual and Biennial vegetable usually sown and harvested within a year. As we know that India contains various types of soil such as- Red Soil, Black Soil, Alluvial, Laterite and so on. [ All are describe in SOIL : Found in India]. Different vegetable suit different soil. but usually, Sandy soils are suitable for early Vegetable.

Procedure Of Cultivation

Approx all vegetable is cultivated in Same Pattern-

  • First of all, Preparation Of Our Land with Proper Aeration and Tillage.
  • Removing Of Weeds.
  • Spread or Broadcast Organic manure or Fertilizer.
  • Sowing of Seeds or Planting Young Tree.
  • Further Irrigate With Suitable amount Of Water.

Transplanting or Seedling

As we know that vegetable are grown over the field. Among them some growing after direct sowing but some grow after Transplanting. Such as-

  • Example of Sowing = Apple Gourd; Pea; Radish; Bitter gourd; Carrot and cucumber, etc.
  • Example of Transplanted = Capsicum; Cabbage; Broccoli; onion; Tomato; Cauliflower, etc.

Lets Discuss about the sowing time, Sowing Distance and Depth of Some vegetables which are enlisted Below-

Seed to SeedRow to Row
Beet RootOctober to November4 inches18 inches 1 inches
Bitter GourdFebruary to march1 ft.4 ft.0.5 inches
Bottle GourdFebruary to march1 ft.4 ft.1 to 2 inches
BroccoliAugust to September1 ft.1.5 ft.1.5 inches
CabbageSeptember to November1 ft.1.5 ft.0.25 inches
CarrotAugust to September2 inches1.5 ft.0.25 inches
CucumberFebruary to march12 inches 12 inches0.5 inches
BeansFebruary to march8 inches18 inches1 to 1.5 inches
OkraFebruary to march12 inches18 inches0.5 inches
OnionMay to june4 ft.6 ft.0.25 inches
PeaSeptember to November4 inches12 inches1 inches
SpinachSeptember to November3 inches9 inches0.5 inches
TomatoJune to August1 ft.2.5 ft.0.25 inches
Early CauliflowerMid June2 ft.2 ft.0.5 inches
Late CauliflowerAugust to October2 ft2 ft.0.5 inches

Seed Rate of Some Vegetable –

Potato20 to 25 Q/ha
Chili1 to 1.5 kg/ha
Tomato400 to 500 g/ha
Brinjal200 g/ha
Carrot5 to 6 kg/ha
CabbageEarly = 500 to 600 g/ha ; Late = 375 to 500 g/ha
CauliflowerEarly = 500 to 600 g/ha ; Late = 350 to 400 g/ha
OnionRabi = 10 to 12 kg/ha; Kharif= 12 to 15 kg/ha
Okra18 to 22 kg/ha
Turnip3 to 4 kg/ha
Cucumber2.5 to 3.5 kg/ha
Bottle Gourd3 to 4 kg/ha
Bitter Gourd4 to 5.5 kg/ha
Pumpkin5 to 6 kg/ha
Spinach37 to 45 kg/ha
Beet Root7.5 to 8 kg/ha

Fertilizerb and Manure does

Basically, Fertilizers are chemically prepared and they are toxic to plant’s health, While Manure may be friendly for Plant’s health. Fertilizers may be Organic or Inorganic.

Inorganic fertilizers are those fertilizers that are made from non-living materials such as chemicals. Some Inorganic fertilizers also contain nutrients that can be taken up by the plants. When we choose an inorganic fertilizer for our garden, we will notice there are commonly used elements are the NPK ratio. where N shows the percentage of nitrogen,  P indicates the percentage of phosphorus, and the last letter K shows the amount of potassium in the fertilizer. Most vegetables require the balanced fertilizer, such as some required additional potassium while leafy green vegetables require mostly nitrogen.

Organic fertilizers are those fertilizers that are made from living materials or Carbon containing materials. Fertilizing vegetable with organic fertilizer doesn’t harm our environment, because their components are derived from the plants and animals.

Manures are the common organic fertilizer. Manures are eco-friendly. For instance, many gardeners supply organic compost or manure over the soil with the using fish emulsion or manure tea, which are also perform like organic manure. Fish emulsion is rich in nitrogen but low in phosphorus. It is sprinkled around the plants every 2-3 weeks. Another vegetable garden fertilizer option is to add nitrogen rich organic fertilizer over the field. As we irrigated, the roots of vegetable absorb the nutrients from the fertilizer.

Nursery raising of Vegetables
Nursery making

Nursery Management

Nursery is that Place where Plants are grown until they become mature and ready for transplanting in the Field. Basically Nursery are of 2 Types-

  1. Permanent Nursery = In this Nursery, we can produces plants continuously.
  2. Temporary Nursery = In this Nursery, we fulfill the requirement of season of a Targeted Project.

Its Benefit-

  • Better consumption of land.
  • In very small land, may produce a lot of young Plants.
  • Ensure optimum utilization of Inputs such as water, nutrients, etc.
  • off season plant also be produced.
  • Easily maintenance.
  • No any Technical Skills are required.

Component of Nursery- Nursery have basically 4 components, i.e.,

  1. Selection of location for raising of Nursery.
  2. Selection of Highly Germinated seed.
  3. Sowing, and
  4. After Care.

Note = In some vegetable market, Nursery Plants also be selled.

Physiological and Nutritional Disorder in Vegetable –

It is important to learn about disorders in Vegetable to become an expert for identification of nutrient and physiological disorder. because sometimes we become confused between these disorder’s symptoms and disease problems. When vegetable is suffering from nutrient or physiological disorders, vegetable exhibits disease-like symptoms; so nutrient disorders are sometimes mistaken as disease.

Nutrient or physiological disorders are caused by a lack of nutrients in plants, or the presence of toxic nutrients. They affect the functioning of the plant system. Nutrient disorders cause deduction in crops yield.

During physiological disorders, the physical structure of Plants be changed. Variation in Soil Ph may cause Nutrient or physiological disorders in Plants because it has an effect on the availability of plant nutrients. so,testing and correcting of soil pH is important for proper growth in plants because it has an effect on the availability of plant nutrients.

Some Symptoms in Plants After a lack of Nutrients or After Nutrient or physiological disorders-

  • Poor germination,
  • leaves may be dull,
  • oldest leaves may turn yellow and drop,
  • Reduction in Yield,
  • Poor plant growth,
  • The size of  fruit become small, and so on.

As we will know about disorder in veggies, it helps us in vegetable market to earn more income.


In Agriculture, Storage defined as the space that is available for storing Agricultural Products after Harvesting, in particular warehouse. During the storage period A large amount of vegetables are lost after harvesting. These losses may be thirty to fifty percent in that countries where storage facilities are not available. The main causes of loss is moisture, micro-organisms, other animals and vermin, etc.

Further Storage may be divided as short-term Storage or long-term Storage .Most vegetables are in short-term storage for marketing. During storage, leafy vegetables losses moisture, and the Vitamin C from them. Some products that do not spoilage fastly and having better keeping qualities, such as potatoes and onions they can be sold when higher prices may be available.

Safe any Vegetable from Fast Spoilage, we can use Refrigerated Storage. If refrigerated storage is not available, the priority for most crops is to store in that place that maintain high humidity level, and keep that products into shade. Before storage, It is needed to remove damaged Products and select the products according to its quality, size, and color.

After Storage of veggies, people who interested to sell their produces; they visit vegetable Market near their Destiny for selling.

Vegetable Harvesting and Vegetable Market

Vegetable Harvesting-

Vegetable harvest
Harvesting in Field

Vegetables are cultivated into Fields and Harvesting is the last method to cut off that vegetable from its source of water and nourishment after completely mature.The harvesting process should be done for bruising to the crop.

Ratooning is also one of the best methods harvesting of mature crops. In Ratooning, only cut off the above portion of crops from Ground level and leave their Roots for Further grow in next Season, The best Example of Ratooning is The Cultivation Of Sugarcane.

Vegetable Market-

Vegetable Market
Vegetable Super Market

Generally, Market is that Place where Buyer buy some goods by Seller who sell that goods with spent some Money.  Market consists of 3 main component i.e.,

  1. Buyer,
  2. Seller, and
  3. Goods (products).

In Vegetable Market, Buyer buy vegetables and some agricultural goods by Seller who sell that Agri Products with spent some Money. Vegetable Market consists of 3 main component i.e.,

  1. Buyer,
  2. Seller, and
  3. Agriculture products (vegetables).

for more knowledge about Indian Farmer’s Vegetable Market of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables, you may click this video Link []

Vegetable Market in india
Vegetable Market in India

As we know that India produces a surplus amounts of Vegetable that may also exported from India to Foreign. There are some Top Producer Country of vegetable that compete with India in Exporting of Vegetable and in International vegetable Market. some Top 15 Producers that lead in Agricultural Vegetable Market; are-

  1. China
  2. India
  3. United State of America
  4. Turkey
  5. Iran
  6. Russia
  7. Italy
  8. Egypt
  9. Spain
  10. Netherland
  11. Mexico
  12. Japan
  13. Indonesia
  14. Brazil
  15. Bangladesh



See Also

[email protected]

It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *