wheat crop and its cultivation: 2nd most famous kharif crops

Wheat crop is that Kharif crops which is so famous after cultivation of Rice crop. Wheat crop is a wheat croptype of kharif cereals means that cereals crop which is cultivated in kharif season. The cultivation of wheat was started from about 10,000 years ago. In India, there are various name of wheat in different region, for eg- People call Gom in west Bengal region, Ghau in Gujarat region, Godumai in Tamilnadu state, and so on. Loamy texture soil is considered as the best and suitable for cultivation of wheat. Wheat is better cultivated in the optimum temperature range from 20 degree Celsius to 22  degree Celsius.

Scientific name-

  • Triticum aestivum

Origin of wheat crop-

  • Turkey

Vernacular Names-

  • Marathi = Gahu
  • Kashmiri = Ku’nu’kh
  • Bengali = Gom
  • Gujarati = Ghau
  • Punjabi = Kamak
  • Telugu = Godhumalu
  • Hindi = Gehun
  • Oriya = Gahama
  • Kannada = Godhi
  • Malayalam = Gothmbu

Geographical Distribution-

Wheat is the very old cultivated Kharif crops. The cultivation of wheat was started from about 10,000 years ago. Wheat is such type of crop that is cultivated all over the world (from 57ºN to 47ºS latitude).  Top ten highest producer country of wheat are following-

RankCountry
1China
2India
3Russian federation
4United State of America
5France
6Canada
7Germany
8Pakistan
9Australia
10Turkey

 

In India, Top ten highest Producer State of wheat are following-

RankState of India
1Uttar Pradesh
2Punjab
3Haryana
4Madhya Pradesh
5Rajasthan
6Bihar
7Gujarat
8Maharashtra
9Uttrakhand
10West Bengal

 

Economic importance- wheat crop field

  • Cultivation of wheat is considered as one of the oldest cultivated kharif crop as well as cereals. As we know that cultivation of wheat is started from about ten thousand (10000) years ago.
  • Wheat is the first mentioned cereals in Bible Holy book in christen mythology.
  • Wheat is consumed by more than 1000 million people all over the world in different forms. In approx. many areas, Wheat is used to consume in the form of Chapattis and Bread. But In India, Wheat is also consumed in the form of Dalia and Halwa.
    Bread made by wheat
  • Wheat is considered as second consumed and famous crops after Rice crop.
  • Wheat is a common source of Carbohydrates.
  • Besides the staple food for Human Beings, Wheat is also used for cattle’s food (fodder) all over the country.

Climatic Requirement-

For Better growth and germination, Wheat requires the Optimum temperature range from 20 degree Celsius to 22 degree Celsius. But wheat crop can germinate at temperature just above 4 degree Celsius. Normal process starts above 5ºC under the presence of adequate sunlight.

  • Optimum Temperature = 20 degree Celsius to 22 degree Celsius
  • Optimum Temperature for their Vegetative Growth = 16 degree Celsius to 22 Degree Celsius.

Soil Requirement-

Wheat cereals are cultivated in a different variety of soils in India. That soils which are loam  Texture and clay loam texture, good structure and moderate water holding capacity are considered as ideal for Cultivation of Wheat. The soil where it is cultivated that should be neutral in its reaction. Heavy soils with poor structure and poor drainage are not suitable for Proper wheat germination. Wheat can also be grown on lighter soils with good water and good nutrient holding capacities.

Species-

There are four Important Species of wheat are grown in India, they are-

(1). Common wheat

Scientific Name = T. vulgare / aestivum

Other Name = Bread wheat

Uses of Common wheat = for chapati and bakery

Cultivated in = throughout all over India

Common wheat is also divided into 4 sub divide part-

  1. Hard red winter wheat
  2. Hard red spring
  3. Soft red winter
  4. White wheat

(2). Duram wheat

Scientific Name = T. durum

Other Name = Macroni wheat

Uses of Common wheat = for preparation of noodles, vermicelli, etc

Cultivated in = in Central & Southern India.

(3). Emmer wheat

Scientific Name = T. dicoccum

Other Name = Winter or spring wheat.

Uses of Common wheat = Preferred for granular preparation.

Cultivated in = in Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra, AP.

(4). Short wheat

Scientific Name = T sphaerococcum

Other Name = Indian dwarf wheat

Cultivated in = in North India and West Pakistan

 

Cultural or Cultivation Practices of wheat crop-

Field preparation

Plough the field two times with an iron plough and two to three times with cultivator.

Uses of FYM

Supply 12.5 t/ha of FYM on the unploughed field.

Seed treatment

Treat the seeds with a fungicides @ 2 g/kg of seeds (24 hours before sowing).

Water management

The wheat crop requires 4 to 6 irrigation that is also depends upon type of soil and rainfall.

Yield of wheat crop- seed from wheat crop

  • in north India, the yield of wheat crop is around 3000 kg/ha

 

 

 

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It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog ecohillagri.com to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.

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