Crop Water requirement and their Losses (in very easy Language)

Hello Guys! Welcome to Our agricultural Blog, In this Blog we try to learn about Crop Water requirement. Basically Crop water requirement is the total water that is required by the crops and Plants for their Proper growth and Development, their Life and to produce vegetative Parts.

The water that is required for Proper growth of Plants is supply by two methods-

crop water requirement
  1. Naturally = required water is supply through Rain means Precipitation.
  2. Artificially = required water is supply through Irrigation.


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Losses During crop water requirement-

Crop water requirement includes some losses, such as-

Loss in crop water requirement
  1. Transpiration Loss through leaf and vegetative Parts of Plants and Crops (denoted as T).
  2. Evaporation Loss through soil surface of field where crops are sown (denoted as E).
  3. Amount of water used by Plants for their metabolic and Enzymic activities (denoted as WP).
  4. Some other Water losses occur during Runoff Loss, Percolation loss (denoted as WL).
  5. Water required for special Purpose such as- Land Preparation, Leaching. Puddling, etc.

Symbolically, crop water requirement is represented as-

  • WR = T+E+WP+WL+WSP
  • WR = IR+ER+S
  • WR = CU+WL+WSP

Where, CU = E+T+WP

Factors that affect crop water requirement-

The crop water requirement varies-

  1. From one place to another place
  2. From one crop to another crop
  3. From different agro- ecological variation.

Some other factors that also affect crop water requirement-

  1. Crop Factors

  2. Soil Factors

  3. Climatic Factors

  4. Agronomic management Factors

Now we can understand them one by one-

  1. Crop Factors- Crop Factors includes five sub factors that also affect crop water requirement, they are-
  • Variety of Crop = Each variety of crop need different-different amount of water, some crop variety need large amount and some variety needs a little amount of water.
  • Growth Stage = Each stages of Growth require different amount of water. At Germination stage, Plants or crop require more amount of water but at mature stage crop and plant requires little amount of water.
  • Duration = Duration of crops or Plants also affect crop water requirement just like other crop Factors.
  • Plants Population = crop water requirement also depends upon Population of Plants. More Plants Population require large amount of water.
  • Crop Growing Season = This Factor also affect crop water requirement such that In Rainy season, crops and Plants require less amount of water but In summer season, crops and Plants require large amount of Water.
  1. Soil Factors- Soil is a natural body that is made up of weathering of Rocks and minerals and Soil also affect crop water requirement or water requirements of crops (Plants), Some of soil Factors that affect soil water requirements, such as-
  • Soil Structure
  • Soil texture = Sandy soil require more amount of water for proper growth of any Plants and crops than Loamy, Clayey and other types of soil.
  • Soil depth, and
  • Soil Topography
  • Soil climatic composition.
  1. Climatic Factors = Climate and weather also affect water requirement for crops and Plants, the Factors that are related to Climate and weather are called as Climatic factors, Some of the Climatic factors that affect crop water requirement are given Below-
  • Temperature = Temperature is one of the climatic factors that affect crop water requirement. More Temperature require Large amount of water and vice versa.
  • Sunlight = Sunlight also affect crop water requirement like Temperature, More Sunlight require large amount of crop water for better growth of crops and Plants.
  • Relative Humidity, and
  • Wind Velocity, OR
  • Rainfall
  1. Agronomic management Factors= Some Agronomic management factors that affect crop water requirement are given,
  • Irrigation Methods used = There are many methods by which we can irrigate our field, such as Flood irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, Drip irrigation, etc. But Drip Irrigation saves our 90 per cent of loss of water, so we definitely use Drip irrigation system to irrigate our Field and Farm because Drip Irrigation system require very less amount of water for Proper growth of our crops and Plants.
  • Frequency of Irrigation and its efficiency
  • Tillage = Highly Tilled Farm require less amount of crop water for better growth of crops.
  • Other Cultural operation, such as- weeding, mulching, etc.

Some Abbreviations used in Crop Water requirement-

There are some Abbreviations that are used in “crop water requirement” Topic, That are-

  1. T =Transpiration Losses through leaf
  2. ET = Evapo transpiration
  3. PET = Potential Evapo Transpiration
  4. WR = Water Requirement
  5. WP = Water used by Plant
  6. WL = Water Loss
  7. WSP = Water required for Special Purpose
  8. ER = Effective rainfall
  9. IR = Irrigation Requirement
  10. S = Soil moisture conservation
  11. CU = Consumptive use

Irrigation Water Requirement-

The Quantity of Required water that must be supply to crops during the growing season of crops and plants. Field water Irrigation requirement of crop means – Water requirement of crops exclusive of effective rainfall and contribution from soil moisture. It may be given below-

IR = WR – (ER + S)




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It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.

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