Horticulture

WHAT IS HORTICULTURE ???

The Term HORTICULTURE is derived from Two Latin Words i.e.

Flower cultivation in Horticulture
  1. HORTUS means Garden,
  2. CULTRA means Cultivation.

Literally, HORTICULTURE means the Practices of cultivation of Garden crops. OR,

HORTICULTURE is a part of an agriculture that is concerned with the Raising and Breeding of Garden crops.

Some points related HORTICULTURE-

  • Many Years ago, The Food crops Such as- wheat, Rice and Maize, etc. were grown in only open field on Large Scale, while some special interesting crops such as- Fruits, vegetables as well as Flowers were grown in Backyard of houses under the protected wall such called ENCLOSURE.
  • As such the term Horticulture in original sense referred to the cultivation of many crops under protected enclosure which is often known as a garden. so, horticulture means the cultivation of crops in Garden.
  • But at Present day; Vegetables, Flowers and many crops are grown not only in backyard but also grow in open field in Large scale for economical as well as commercial purpose.
  • Traditionally; Horticulture deals only with fruits, Vegetables and Flowers, etc. But Today; Horticulture also deals about cereals, species, condiments, medicinal and aromatic Plants, etc.

Main Definition of Horticuture

“Horticulture is one of the Important Branch of an agriculture which deals with the raising of Trees and Plants for shading, ornamental and Economical Purpose, Raising and Breeding of various types of Garden, parks and Raising of seeds. and also deals with the utilization of agricultural Products and their improvements”.

Division of Horticulture

Further, Horticulture is classified into many Branches— Some are:

  1. Pomology
  2. Olericulture
  3. Floriculture
  4. Arboriculture
  5. Plantation Crop
  6. Spices and condiments
  7. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
  8. Landscape Gardening

Role Of Horticulture

  1. In our career
  2. In National Economy
  3. In Our life

(1).In our career = Our Career means our whole Life after completing Study. It includes even we do Job or do any Business or farming. In our Career sector, Horticulture plays an important role .

In our Job career sector- 60 -70 % questions are related to Horticulture. such as-Botanical classification of vegetables, fruits, cereals and so many crops. Raising and Breeding of seeds, Utilization and Improvements in Agriculture product and Raising of Nursery, etc.

And in Our Business as well as Farming sector, Horticulture also plays an important role because Among the whole Agriculture Horticulture is one of the best methods to earn money more than other sectors.

(2).In National economy = National Economy is measured by the national wealth of the country and Horticulture produces contribute to national wealth.

In India, Also through the Export of Horticultural products to outside; our country is earning foreign Exchange. such as-

India Exporting-

(a).FLOWERS = Export into Malaysia, UAE, Netherland, Germany, Japan and UK.

ready to export
Lily for export

(b).ONION = Export into Malaysia, UAE, Singapore, srilanka and     Bangldesh.

(c).VEGETABLE = Export into Srilanka, america, UAE, Spain, Saudi Arabia, UK, Bangladesh, Kuwait.

vegetables

(d).FRESH GRAPES = Export into UK, UAE, Germany, Bangladesh, Netherland.    

(e). FRESH FRUITS = Export into Bangladesh, UAE, Saudi Arabia, UK, and Sri lanka.

(f).PROCESSED VEGETABLES = Export into Egypt, Sri lanka, UAE, America and Turkey.

Processed Vegetables and fruits

(g).MANGO PULP = Export into Saudi Arabia, UAE, Netherland, Kuwait, Germany.

mango pulp

(h).PICKLES AND CHAUTENY = Export into UK, America, UAE, Spain, etc.

Export Data of Horticultural Products from India (1999 – 2010)
Export Data

Horticulture crops provide gainful employment for small farmers and Labor.

(3).In Our Life =Horticulture mainly consists fruits and vegetables that play an important role in our Balanced Diet and provide not only Rich energy food but also provide many essential Nutrients and Vitamins.

  • Nutrients = Nutrients are those elements that provides nutrition to our Health that helps our growth. For example – N, C, Fe, P, S, etc.
Further, Nutrients are sub-divided into 2 Types-
  1. Macronutrients
  2. Micronutrients

1. Macro nutrients = Macro nutrients are that nutrients which is taken in large Amount. For example-N, Fe, Ca, etc.

2. Micro nutrients = Micro nutrients are that nutrients which is taken in small amount. For example- S, Al, K, etc.

  • Vitamins = Vitamins are the various organic compounds that are required in small amounts for growth and activity of the body. Or, any of a group of organic compounds which are essential for normal growth. These are the important constituents of fruits and vegetables and these are the part of human diet.
Some properties of Vitamins-
  1. They are absolutely essential for the maintenance of health.
  2. Most vitamins cannot be synthesized by the body, but are found naturally in foods obtained from plants and animals.
  3. Vitamins are either water-soluble or fat-soluble.
  4. The deficiency of any vitamin from the diet for considerable period may lead to diseased state or disorder conditions.
Types of Vitamins that is required for our growth –

(1).Vitamin A = Vitamin A is essential for normal growth, reproduction and maintenance of health and vigour. It affords protection against cold and influenza and prevents night blindness.

Source = Fruits- Mango and papaya

vegetables- Carrot, Pea, spinach and green vegetables

(2).Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) = Vitamin B1 helps in proper functioning of the digestion. Its deficiency in human body may cause Beriberi, paralysis, enlargement of heart, loss of weight and fall in body temperature.

Sources= Fruits- Orange, pineapple, jack fruit, banana etc.

Vegetables- Green chilli, beans, onion, sweet potato, tomato (red).

(3).Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)= This vitamin is required for body growth and health of the skin. The deficiency of this vitamin may causes sore throat, anorexia cataract, and loss of appetite and body weight.

Sources= Fruits- Bael,  papaya, litchi, banana, pomegranate, etc.

Vegetables- Cabbage, cauliflower, potato, peas and beans, methi.

(4).Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) = This vitamin promotes general health and healthy gums, prevents scurvy disease which is characterized by pain in the joints and swelling of limbs (rheumatism), bleeding of gums, tooth decay and keeps the blood.

Sources= Fruits- Amla, guava, ber, citrus, strawberry, pineapple etc.

Vegetables- Tomato, palak, menthi, cabbage, green chillies, spinach, potatoes, peas and beans.

(5).Vitamin D = This vitamin is necessary for building up of bones, preventing rickets.

Sources= All green leafy vegetables are rich in this vitamin.

(6). Vitamin E =this vitamin has an important effect on the generative functions and promotes fertility.

Sources= green vegetables.

(7).Vitamin K = Vitamin K prevents blood clotting .

Sources= All green leafy vegetables are rich in this vitamin

HORTICULTURAL ZONES OF INDIA

Due to Various climatic condition in India at different region, India has been divided into 3 horticultural zones. They are:

(1).TROPICAL ZONE = Entire South India below the Vindhya hills comes under this zone. This zone is again sub-divided in to 3 sub-zones. They are: (a) Central tropical zone (b) Southern tropical zone (c) Coastal tropical humid zone

(2).SUB-TROPICAL ZONE = The area above the Vindhya hills comes under this zone. Occasionally frost occurs in this zone. This zone is sub-divided into TWO sub-zones basing on the direction. They are: (a)  North-Western Subtropical zone = States like Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Parts of Bihar, U.P, M.P and west Bengal comes under this zone. Fruit crops recommended: Litchi, citrus (sweet orange, mandarin oranges), dates, guava, sapota, Papaya, phalsa, fig are some typical subtropical fruits grown but other tropical fruits like Mango, jack, banana can also be grown etc. (b) North-eastern sub-tropical zone = Areas like parts of UP, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, and Tripura. Fruit crops recommended: Litchi, Citrus (Sweet Orange, Mandarin oranges), Dates, Guava, Sapota.

 

(3).TEMPERATE ZONE = Areas comes in this zone are Jammu and Kashmir, Kulu, Katrain, Kangra valleys of Punjab, parts of Himachal Pradesh and kuman hills and also high altitude regions in South India-Nilagiris and Palani hills of Tamil Nadu.This zone frequently experiences frosts.

 

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It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog ecohillagri.com to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.

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