A Balanced diet refers to the intake of edibles which can provide all the essential food constituents and also all the essential human nutrition that is necessary for growth and maintenance of the body, in definite amount in which they are required by the Body.
A balanced diet means eating the right amount of foods from all food groups. A diet which consists of all the essential food constituents, viz. proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and water in correct proportion is called a balanced diet. For more knowledge about the tips of balanced diet- https://www.narayanahealth.org/blog/how-to-maintain-a-balanced-diet/
In fact, every individual does not require same type of diet. The diet differs from individual to individual. The following Points sum up a balanced diet-
- A balanced diet must contain all the essential human nutrition in adequate amount.
- There must be definite proportion between the different constituents of food .
- The food should be easily digestible that is necessary for human nutrition.
- Cooking of food is necessary because it sterilizes foodstuff and makes it palatable and Easily digestible.
Human Nutrition: an Essential Part of a Balanced diet
Every individual in this world wants to lead a healthy life. Food is the main basis for maintaining health. So, the knowledge of food and human nutrition is essential for every Individual. Nutrition is defined as the science of food and its relationship with health. And Nutrition is also defined as the Science of foods which comprises the dynamic process in which the consumed food is Digested, nutrients are absorbed and distributed to every cell of our Body for utilization of Energy and wastes are disposed from the Body. However Human nutrition are that which provide the nutrition to human body for proper growth of an Individual.
Further Nutrients are classified as two types-
- Macro Nutrients
- Micro Nutrients
(1) Macro Nutrients-
Macro Nutrients are the nutrients that are taken in large amounts that is essential for a balanced diet and supply energy that are needed for our Proper Growth. Macro nutrients include –
Carbohydrates are the most important source of Energy. Carbohydrates are the most useful human nutrition for a balanced diet. They contain the elements of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The term Carbohydrate is derived from three other words i.e. Carbo which means Carbon, hydr which means Hydrogen and ate which means Oxygen.
In all Carbohydrate, the Ratio of Hydrogen atom to Oxygen atom is 2:1 just like water. Carbohydrates are actually organic compounds that are important for different digestive function in our Body. There are two main types of Carbohydrates, i.e., Simple Carbohydrate and Complex Carbohydrate.
Difference between Simple Carbohydrate and complex Carbohydrates-
|Simple Carbohydrate||Complex Carbohydrate|
|Soluble in water||Not Soluble in water|
|Sweet in Taste||These are not sweet in taste|
|They contain Small chain||They contain large chain|
|Glucose, Fructose, Sucrose, Maltose, etc.||Starch, Glycogen, cellulose.|
Proteins contain- Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, Nitrogen and sometimes sulphur. Proteins are very large molecules. So they can not be directly absorbed into our Blood, so they are turned into Amino acid by digestive system. There are 23 amino acids exist. Out of them, 9 amino acids are must be available in our Diet, these amino acids are used to create blood, muscles, nails, skin, hair and Tissue in our Body. Protein makes new tissues and repairs the broken Tissues. Protein is considered as Primary human nutrition.
The Excessive use of Protein in diet can result heart diseases, osteoporosis, stroke and kidney Stone and very dangerous disease. Marasmus and Kwashiorkor are protein deficiency disease in children.
Fats also contain carbon, oxygen and Hydrogen in the percentage of 76, 12 and 12 respectively. Fats are necessary for many Body function. Fats keep us warm and protect our Organ. Fats also helps in Production of Hormones. It is also part of a balanced diet.
There are three different groups of fats in our diet that is Saturated fats, Poly unsaturated fats and mono-unsaturated fats. The Intake of saturated Fats increase the chance of Heart disease. And the Poly unsaturated fats are slightly better than mono unsaturated fats.
Water is a compound that is made up of two elements that is Hydrogen and Oxygen in the ratio of 2:1. Our Blood contains 90% of water. Water help in transportation of nutrients to different cells of Body. Water also helps for excretion of waste material from our body. And also regulates the Body Temperature. As a matter of fact, macro nutrients are consumed in large amount. Water must be taken in Large Quantity. Therefore, It can be considered a part of macro nutrients. water also comes under human nutrition like fats, vitamins, etc.
(2). Micro Nutrients-
Micro Nutrients are the nutrients that are taken in small amounts and supply energy that are needed for our Proper Growth. Micro nutrients mainly include –
Minerals are essential in our diet for good human nutrition. About 4 per cent of our body weight is made up of minerals. Minerals are required for healthy teeth, bones, and muscles. Minerals are also used by our Body for Various activities and function such as formation of hormones, transmission of nerve impulse and so on. Minerals are further classified into two types-
- Macro Minerals = That types of Mineral that are taken in Large amount. Such as- Calcium, Potassium, magnesium, etc.
- Micro Minerals = That types of Mineral that are taken in Small amount. Such as- Iodine, Iron, and copper.
Vitamins are also an essential part of a balanced diet and human nutrition also. Vitamins are chemicals which are required in very small amount to keep our body healthy. If a Particular Vitamin is not present in our Diet, it may cause a deficiency disease. For example- if Vitamin C is not included in diet, it will causes scurvy. There are two groups of Vitamins which are must be present in our diet, that are discussing below-
- Fat soluble Vitamins
- Water soluble Vitamins
Fat soluble Vitamins –
Fat soluble Vitamins are those Vitamins which are soluble in fat. These Vitamins are composed of the element of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. These Vitamins are Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E and Vitamin K.
Vitamin A= It was the first Vitamin that was discovered in 1913 by ELMER McCOLLUM. This Vitamin is found in various forms such as retinol, retinal and retinoic acid. This Vitamin is formed by the elements of Hydrogen, Carbon and oxygen. It is helpful in the formation of bones and teeth.
Vitamin D = It is formed by the elements of carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. It is a white crystalline substance. It helps in the absorption of calcium and Phosphorus. It maintains the normal functioning of parathormone, the hormones secreted by parathyroid glands.
Vitamin E = This Vitamin is essential for Blood coagulation. It strengthens the cell membranes, It keeps the skin healthy.
Vitamin K = The main function of this Vitamin is to clot the blood. It also helps in the prevention of haemorrhage and excessive bleeding in wounds. Its deficiency may causes anaemia.
Water Soluble Vitamins –
These Vitamins are soluble in water not in fat. These Vitamins contain the elements of Nitrogen and even sulphur. These vitamins are Vitamin B and Vitamin C. Earlier, the chemical names of all the vitamins (fat soluble and water soluble vitamins) where not knows but now their chemical names are available.
Vitamin B Complex = Vitamin B consists of eight soluble Vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. Earlier, they were thought to be a single Vitamin but later, research showed that they were chemically distinct Vitamins.
Vitamin B1 or Thiamine
Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin
Vitamin B3 or Niacin
Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic acid
Vitamin B9 or folic acid
Vitamin C = This Vitamin is also known as ascorbic acid. It is a water soluble vitamin. It is a white crystalline substance. Vitamin C helps in healing the wounds. It increases metabolic rate and is helpful in absorbing calcium.
|Human Nutrition & Nutrients for a Balanced diet||Their Source|
|Protein||Egg, milk, meat, fish, soyabean, mustard, Green Peas.|
|Carbohydrate||Rice, maize, jowar, Bajra, Pulses, gram.|
|Fats||Ghee, Butter, cheese, curd, fish oil, milk and meat.|
|Vitamin A||Ghee, milk, curd, egg yolk, fish, potato, papaya, green vegetables, orange, spinach, carrot, etc.|
|Vitamin D||Egg yolk, fish, sunlight, green vegetables, cod liver oil, milk, cream, butter, potato, carrot.|
|Vitamin K||Cauliflower, spinach, cabbage, potato, Tomato, green vegetable, wheat, egg, meat|
|Vitamin E||Green vegetables, organ meats, butter, meat, fresh fruit, milk, coconut oil, egg yolk.|
|Vitamin B1||Wheat, groundnut, green peas, orange, pig meat, liver, eggs, Green vegetables, Rice.|
|Vitamin B2||Egg yolk, fish, pulses, peas, rice, Yeast, wheat, green vegetables.|
|Vitamin B3||Milk, Dry fruit and Egg yolk|
|Vitamin B5||Yeast, milk and Polished Rice|
|Vitamin B6||Fish, meat, egg yolk, wheat|
|Vitamin B7||Egg yolk, fresh vegetable, yeast bread, cereals|
|Vitamin B12||Spinach, yeast.|
|Vitamin C||Lemons and all citrus fruit, Grapes, Apples, Amla, Green chilli, Tomato, etc.|
For guide how to eat a balanced diet- https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/324093
Further, a balanced diet is categorized into 2 types according to human Nutrition-
- Nutritive component of Diet,
- Non-Nutritive component of Diet.
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