Kharif crops : Finger millet and Cow Pea (2 most usable crop)

Finger Millets : most usable kharif crops

kharif crop
kharif crop

Botanical Name = Eluesine coracana

Origin of Finger Millets (a kharif crop)

According to Vedic literature, Finger Millets were originated in India.

According to Vavilov, Finger Millets were originated in Abyssinia.

Characteristics and Identification of Finger Millet

  • Finger Millets are annual Plants and they are erect in Shape.
  • Stem of Finger Millet is also erect, compressed, elliptic in Shape.
  • Finger Millet is Self-Pollinated crops.
  • Leaves of Finger Millets are arranged alternatively.
  • Average no. of spikelets per finger is 67-73.
  • Each spikelet contains 4-6 flowers.

Geographical Distribution

Kharif crops

Finger Millet is a Kharif crops  that is cultivated over almost region of our country India. In India, the Production & Productivity of Finger Millet be increased due to better variety and management of Farming and cultivation Practise in India.

Finger Millet is a major Millet crops that are cultivated in Southern Region of India such as- Karnataka, Kerala. Finger Millet is also cultivated for Both Purpose such as for grains and Forage Purpose. Finger Millet is cultivated up to an altitude of 2100 m.

The Highest Production of Finger Millet is comes from Karnataka state of India.

Cultural Practices of this kharif crops

Climate-

  • As we know that, India has Tropical and Sub-tropical Region, and Finger Millet is cultivated in tropics and sub-tropics.
  • Mean temp for better growth of Finger Millet is of 26-29°C.
  • Crop yield of Finger Millet reduces below 20°C.
  • This crop has good drought recovery crop.

Soil Requirement-

  • Finger Millet is mainly cultivated in alluvial soil, Loamy Soil, sandy with good drainage capacity.
  • It can be tolerate salinity >pH 11.0
  • Finger Millet is also cultivated on different soil.

Varieties-

  • CO RA 14 – 105 -110 d
  • CO 13 – 95-100 d
  • CO 9 100 d
  • TRY 1 102 d
  • Paiyur 1 115-120 d
  • INDAF 5 105-110 d, etc.

Time of Sowinng-

  • As rainfed crop, Finger Millet is cultivated in Jun-July
  • First fortnight of June is best for rainfed
  • In hilly areas of UP & HP it is sown in Apr-May itself

Selection of seeds-

Good quality seeds are sown and that are collected from disease-free  and pest-free fields.

Seed rate = 6-8kg for Rainfed crop.

Spacing = 20-25cm row to row.

Nutrient management-

  • General recommendation of N:P:K = 60:30:30
  • Uses of Magnesium is @ 50 kg and Calcium @ 20 kg
  • Also supply Half N & full P & K basal
  • Balance N at 15 DAT / 25DAS

Irrigation Management-

  • For rainfed crop as well as irrigated crop at tillering flowering can increase the yield
  • Irrigation at 50% depletion is sufficient for proper Growth of Finger Millet.

Weed management-

  • Hand weeding is one of the best methods for controlling of weeds.
  • Supply of Herbicides is necessary if weeds are not controlled by Hand weeding methods. Examples of supply of some Herbicides are- Butachlor 1.25 kg as pre-emergence for transplanted crop.
  • For direct sowing crops, post-emergence 2,4 DEE or 2,4 D Na salt @0.5 kg 10 DAS.

Major Diseases-

  • Blast
  • Seedling blight
  • Downey mildew

 

Insects and Pests-

  • Stem borer
  • Grass hopper
  • Ear head eating cater pillar

Harvesting

Staggered harvesting is also done to collect differentially maturing ear heads. Ear heads are dried and manual / machine threshed. Straw may be harvested and serve as forage for animal.


 

Cowpea

Cowpea : a kharif crop
Cowpea : a kharif crop

Botanical Name = Vigna unguiculata

General Introduction-

  • Cowpea crop is mainly cultivated on the tropical and sub-tropical Region of India.
  • Cowpea crop is cultivated in Major area of Africa.
  • Cowpea is Cultivated for many purposes.

Origin = Africa

Identification of crops-

  • Plants are generally Short, semi-erect.
  • Cowpea crop have Strong tap root with nodulation.
  • Weight of grains is mostly around 100-120mg.
  • Cowpea crop is Almost similar to blackgram or greengram.

Varieties-

  • CO2, 3, 4, 6
  • KM1,
  • VBN 1 & 2,
  • Paiyur 2
  • C 152

Geographical Distribution-

Cowpea is a Kharif crop that is cultivated over almost region of world. It is mainly cultivated on the tropical and sub-tropical Region of India.

In India, Cowpea crop is cultivated over all region of India. Such as- Karnataka, AP, UP, Bihar. Cowpea crop (Vigna unguiculata) is Cultivated in about 0.5 million ha area in India.

Cropping Systemof the Kharif crops-

Cowpea crop is mostly sown as mixed crop A Kharif crop

  • Rice-wheat-cowpea
  • Pearlmillet -wheat-cowpea
  • Pigeonpea -wheat-cowpea
  • Rice-mustard-cowpea
  • Cowpea-wheat -greengram

Seed Rate = 20 kg

Spacing = 30 x 15cm, 45 x 15cm

Nutrient management = Supply 20kg K2O for lateritic soils.

Harvesting-

  • Almost this Kharif crops (Cowpea) is Harvested as Matured pods for grain.
  • For vegetables tender green pods.

 

 

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It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog ecohillagri.com to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.

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