Plants Tissue :Description Types Xylem Phloem and Stomata

General Introduction


A Group of cells of similar in structure that work together to perform a special function form a TISSUE. Cells of multicellular organisms show the division of Labour. Various metabolic Activities are performed by different groups of cells, Each group of cell form a Tissue. Generally Tissues are defined ad the Group of similar cell.

Importance of tissue-

  1. It becomes organized to form organs and organs into organ system.
  2. Workload of individual cell has decreased due to origin of Tissue.
  3. As a result of improved higher efficiency, Multicellular organisms have higher survival.
  4. Formation Of tissues has brought about a division of labour in Multicellular organisms.

Why Plants and animals are made of different types of Tissues??

Basically Plants and Animals are Two different types of organisms. Plants are Autotrophic organisms, so they prepare their own foods itself with the help Carbon di-oxide, water and Sunlight via photosynthesis process. Moreover, Plants are stationary or fixed organisms so they do not move from one place to another place in search of their foods. Since they do not require more energy, so most of the plant tissue s are supportive that support plants and provide them with structural strength to stay on one place. Some tissues that support the plants are Xylem, Phloem, sclerenhyma, etc. they all are dead Tissue.

On the Other hand, Animals are Heterotrophic Organisms. They have ability to move from one place to another place for searching their foods, mate and finding Shelter. for moving from one to other place, they need more energy as compared to Plants. Most of Tissue that Animals contain are living.

Here, Living Tissue means Tissue having living protoplasm and Non-Living Tissue means Tissue that do not contain living protoplasm.

Plant tissue

The type of tissue that is present in Plants are known as Plants tissue. Basically plant Tissues are of Two types that is Meristematic Tissue and another is Permanent Plant Tissue. Types of plants tissue are given Below-

1. Meristematic Plant tissue-

Meristematic Plant tissue

Meristematic Plant tissue helps in increasing the length and girth of the plant. Meristematic Plant tissue may be spherical, Polygonal or rectangular in Shape. Each Meristematic Plant cell contains cytoplasm and single large nucleus, It contains few or no Vacuoles.

Meristematic Plant tissues are growth tissues and are found in growing regions of the plants. According to their position in Plants, Meristematic Plant tissue further divided into three sub division, that is –

  • Apical = The types of Meristematic Plant tissue that found at the tips of Root and Stem.
  • Lateral = The types of Meristematic Plant tissue that found below the Bark in dicot root s and stem.
  • Intercalary = The types of Meristematic Plant tissue that found at Inter nodes of stem. so called Intercalary.

Functions of Meristematic Plant tissue –

  • It acts as a parent Tissue from which other tissue tissue develop.
  • The Place of Injury in Plants is healed up by the formation of new cells by meristems.
  • With the help of Meristematic Plant tissue, Plants produce leaves, branches, Roots, Flowers and Fruits continue.

2.Permanent Plant Tissue-

Permanent Plants Tissue are that type of Plant Tissue by which the development process by which cell derived from meristematic Tissue, take up a Permanent Shape, Size and various permanent function.

Different Types of Permanent tissues are formed due to differences in their specialization. Permanent Plants Tissue may be simple or Complex, their cell may be live or dead and may be regular or Irregular.

  1. Simple Permanent Plants Tissue = These Tissues are composed of cells which are structurally and Functionally similar. Hence, these Tissues are all made of one type of cell.
  2. Complex Permanent Plants Tissue = The complex Permanent Plants Tissue consists of more than one type of cells having a common origin.

Further Simple Permanent Plants Tissues are divided into Parenchyma, Collenchyma and Sclerenchyma.

and Complex Permanent Plants Tissues are also divided in Xylem and Phloem.



The term Stomata is derived from the word stoma. In botany, a stoma is also known as stomate. Basically Stomata is a pores like structure that is found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other parts of plants that allow a plant to take carbon dioxide, water and sun light inside that is necessary for photosynthesis process. And stomata also involved in the exchange of carbon dioxide and water between plants and the atmosphere or facilitates gas exchange during photosynthesis and Respiration.

Stomata is also known as guard cells and perform the function to open and close stomatal pores. that pore is bordered by a pair of specialized parenchyma cells that are responsible for regulating the size of the stomatal pores.

stomata in leaf

The process of Transpiration helps Xylem Tissue in the condition of Water and dissolved mineral salts by Mass flow mechanism.

Xylem and Phloem


The Term XYLEM is derived from a Greek word xylos which means Wood. Generally Xylem is a Vascular and mechanical tissue. In other word, It is a conducting Tissue. Xylem is composed of mainly four Types of Cell, that is –

  1. Tracheids
  2. Vessels or Tracheae
  3. Xylem Parenchyma, and
  4.  Xylem Sclerenchyma or Fibres.
  • Tracheids are elongated cells with tapering ends and they also conduct water. Tracheids do not have open ends like vessels.
  • Vessels are very long tube like structures formed by a Row of cells placed end to end. Vessels are shorter but wider than Tracheids.
  • Xylem Parenchyma stores food and helps in lateral conduction of water.

Functions of Xylem-

  1. To carry water and mineral salts upward from the root to different part of shoots of the plants.
  2. Wall of Tracheids, Vessels and  Sclerenchyma give the mechanical strength to the Plant body.


Like Xylem, The Term Phloem is derived from the Greek word phloos which means Bark. Phloem contains tubes but performs no mechanical functions. Phloem also composed of following four cell-

  1. Sieve Tubes
  2. Companion cells
  3. Phloem parenchyma, and
  4.  Phloem fibres.


See Also




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It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.

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