Fungi are the eukaryotic, unicellular or multicellular organisms that are composed of filament like structure and are reproduced by sexual and asexual spores both. For example- Yeast and Mushrooms. This Blog describe about the Reproduction in Fungi, There are basically three modes of Reproduction in Fungi occurs that is describing below-
NOTE = Fungus is the singular form of fungi.
Mostly reproduce by both sexually and asexually method (By both method, they can produces spores).
- 1 Reproduction in Fungi
- 2 Vegetative Reproduction in Fungi –
- 3 Asexual Reproduction in Fungi
- 4 Sexual Reproduction in Fungi
Reproduction in Fungi
Basically Reproduction means the production of new generation by their old Parents. Further Reproduction are classified into two types (i.e., Sexual and Asexual) but Reproduction in Fungi occurs in three modes that is-
- Vegetative Reproduction
- Asexual Reproduction
- Sexual Reproduction
Vegetative Reproduction in Fungi –
Vegetative Reproduction means the Production of new fungi by the vegetative Part of old or Parent fungi. The things that is noted here that- No any kind of Spores is formed during Vegetative reproduction.
Vegetative Reproduction in fungi may includes-
- Oidia (small egg)
(1). Fragmentation in Fungi –
Fragmentation is a type of vegetative reproduction in Fungi in which an organism is split into fragments. Each of these fragment developed into matured.
NOTE = fragmentation occurs in only favourable condition.
(2). Fission in Fungi –
Fission is also a type of vegetative reproduction in which the division of a single mature cell of an entity or an organism into two parts (daughter cell) and Further each part developed into a mature fungi.
NOTE= Fission occurs only in unicellular fungi, for example- Yeast.
(3). Budding in Fungi-
Budding is also known as Bud fission. Budding is modified type of fission. In Budding, cross walls are developed near the Base of bud to separate bud from mother cell. Common example of Budding in Fungi is Yeast.
NOTE = Only Buds undergo Fission not mother cell.
Budding in Yeast-
Budding is commonly occurs in Yeast. Budding of yeast may be of different types-
- Multilateral Budding = Bud arise at any Point on another cell, but never again at same site.
- Uni Polar Budding = Budding is repeated at the same site on mother cell surface.
- Bi Polar Budding = Budding is restricted to both Poles of the cell of yeast.
- Mono polar = Buds are originated at only one Pole of mother cell.
(4). Sclerotia –
Sclerotia are the Pseudo – Parenchymatous mycelial aggregation. Parenchymatous means the Basic tissue of Plants that are consists of cell with their cellulose walls.
Sclerotia can also overcome unfavourable condition. And they can survive in Substratum for many years. Substratum is a layer of Soil.
Sclerotia are commonly Produced by Plant Pathogenic Fungi which means those type of fungi that harm the Plant.
(5). Rhizomorphs –
Rhizomorphs are Root like mycelial aggregation found in Some Fungi. They can also overcome in an unfavourable condition. They are Pseudo – Parenchymatous hyphael modification.
Rhizomorphs have high Penetration capacity than individual hyphae and hence they have more Pathogenic Potential.
Asexual Reproduction in Fungi
Basically Asexual Reproduction is the second mode of Reproduction in which no any fusion of gamete occurs. New Fungi can be produced by old fungi with Asexual method of Reproduction.
And the Spores produced by asexually method that spores are called asexual Spores. And those Spores which are produced by sexually method that spores are called sexual Spores.
Generally, Asexual spores are that Spores which are generated by Asexual methods or modes.
The spores produced asexual means are-
- Sporangio spores
- Chlamydo Spores
a). Sporangio spores –
Sporangio spores may be motile or Non motile spores. In Simpler Fungi, Sporangio spores are usually motile and are called Zoo spores. Sporangio spores are formed in Sac – like structure called Sporangium. Sporangio spores are also known as Merosporangium.
The term Sporangio spores are derived from-
- Spora = seed
- Spore + angenion = vessel
Generally Spores are classified into two types according to their motion or movement-
- Motile = also known as planospores or zoospores.
- Non motile = also known as aplanospores.
Aplano spores may be uni or multinucleate and they are unicellular, when aplanospores be mature, they are surrounded by insects that disperse such spores.
Conidia are also known as conidio spores. Conidia are asexual reproductive structure are reproduced on spores bearing hyphae.
Conidia may be produced singly, in chain or in cluster.
A spores produced asexually by various fungi at the tip of hyphae.
c). Chlamydo spores-
Chlamydo spores is derived from the greek words-
- Chlamys = mantle or cover
- Spora = seeds
Chlamydo spores are the thick walled thallic conidium. Mycelium become packed with thick wall the wall may be colourless or dark Pigment. Generally there is no mechanism for detachment of chlamydospores. They become separated from each other by dis-integration of hyphae.
Classification of Spores according to site of Production-
There are two types of Spores i.e.,
(1). Endogenous Spores = The Spores produced inside the sporangiospores are called as Endogenous Spores. They are of two types- Plano spores or aplanospores.
(2). Exogenous Spores = The spores that are Produced at the tip or outside the vegetative structure are called exogenous spores. It is also known as conidia. They are of three types- Blasto spores, Aleurio spoes and Phialo spores. For more knowledge about fungi click this site to download PDF file https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279200956_REPRODUCTION_OF_FUNGI
Sexual Reproduction in Fungi
Generally, Sexual Reproduction in Fungi includes the fusion of two sexual gametes. Fungi can also be reproduced by sexual modes of Reproduction.
Sexual Reproduction in Fungi involves-
- Sexual Spores
- Union or fusion of two nuclei
Nuclei may be carried in motile or Non motile gametes. Male gametes are known as Antheridium and Female gametes are known as Oogonium. There are three Phases of Sexual Reproduction i.e.,
Methods of Sexual Reproduction in Fungi-
There are Five methods of Sexual Reproduction occurs in Fungi,
- Gametic copulation
- Gametangial contact
- Gametangial copulation
(1). Gametic copulation-
In Gametic copulation, conjugation and Planogametic copulation occurs. Planogametic means motile gametes.
The fusion of two gametes, one or both of which are motile this type of fusion is known as Gametic copulation. This type of Sexual reproduction is common in aquatic fungi. There are three types of Gametic copulation exist i.e.,
a). copulation of Isogamous motile gamete = Sexual Reproduction that involves gaetes of similar morphology (shape and size). Both gametes look alike, they can not be classified as male or female. For example = Synchytrium.
b). Anisogamous = It involves the union of one larger gamete with another smaller gamete. The resultant zygote is motile.
c). Heterogamous = A non motile female gamete is fertilized by a motile male gamete.
(2). Gametangial contact –
In this method, the male gamete and female gamete come in contact and female gamete come in contact and one or more nuclei from male gamete enter the female gamete.
(3). Gametengial copulation –
This is a process of fusion of entire contents of two gametangia. Gametangia means an organ or cell in which gametes are produced. They are of two types-
a). Isogamous copulation = Two morphologically similar gametangial hyphae come in contact, the wall at the point of contact can dissolves and the contents mix in the cell thus formed. This results in the formation of zygospores. For example- Mucor, Rhizopus.
b). Mixing of entire protoplasm of male and female gametangia = Two gametangia meet and their entire contents fuse in female gametangium leading to formation of Zygote. for example – Aquatic Fungi.
(4). Spermatization in Fungi –
Some fungi like rusts bear numerous minute, non motile uninucleate, male cells called Spermatia. and the process of reproduction is known as Spermatization.
(5). Somatogamy –
Somatogamy is derived from the Greek words- Soma (means Body) and gamous (means union or mating). In Somatogamy, Fusion of two cells occurs but not nuclei. These all are the methods of Sexual Reproduction in Fungi.
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