Hello Friends, welcome again our Agricultural Blog- ecohill agri. In this Blog, we try to understand about Soil Moisture Tension. Here the word “Tension” means Force.
- 1 Introduction about Soil moisture tension-
- 2 PF of Soil –
- 3 Role of Water in plants growth
- 4 Soil physical Property influencing irrigation OR, Physical Properties of soil that affect / influences irrigation-
- 5 Water relations of soil OR, Soil water relationship
Introduction about Soil moisture tension-
Soil Moisture Tension is the measurement of Tenacity which means how strongly water molecules is held in the Soil Particle (Particles of Soil). One Question is arise in our Mind is How water molecules are held in the soil? Water molecules are held in the soil with the help of Two Forces, that are-
- With the help of Capillary force (Capillarity).
- With the help of Attraction between water molecules to itself and Attraction between water molecules to electrically charged clay Particles of soil (Adhesion and Adhesive force).
NOTE= Unit of Soil Moisture Tension is equal to Unit of Pressure, that is centibars or Kilopascals.[ 1 Centibar = 1 kPa ]
Again Soil Moisture Tension is also defined as the force per unit area that must be exerted to remove water from Soil.[ Force/Area = Pressure ]
Soil Moisture Tension is measured in the term of Potential energy of water in the soil with respect to free water present in the ground.
- Soil Moisture Tension is measured about at the small dimension with the help of capillarity.
- Soil Moisture Tension is measured about at the higher dimension with the help of Adhesion.
Soil water Tension – how strongly water is hold / retained by soil particle .
It has 2 conditions –
- If water is held in small dimension or small area of soil.
- If water is hold in higher / large dimension or large area of soil.
1st condition –
If small amount of water is held by soil particle OR, If water is held in small area of soil.
- Then soil moisture tension is measured by capillary action or capillarity .
- Capillary action or, capillarity = Ability of liquid water to flow against gravity.
2nd condition –
If large amount of water is held by soil particle OR, If water is held in large area of soil .
- Then, soil moisture tension is measured by adhesion or adhesive force.
- Adhesion = It is an attractive force b/w molecules of diff. substance
- In 1907, Buckingham introduced the concept about ‘’capillary potential”.
NOTE= Potential means energy or capacity.
Capillary potential is the energy or force with which water molecules is held by soil and their particles.
Different – Different moisture range has suitable different word- Such as ,
- Wet soil = hydrostatic potential is suitable
- Intermediate moisture if soil = “capillary Potential” is suitable.
- For Dry soil = Hygroscopic potential is suitable.
PF of Soil –
- In 1935, scholfield suggested the use of logarithm (log) of soil moisture tension.
pF = log 10h (means Log to the base 10)
Where, h is equal to soil moisture tension in cm of water .
Role of Water in plants growth
- Water is also known as –The liquid Gold.
Role of water in crop and crop production.
Physiological importance –
- The plants system itself contains approx. 90 per cent of water.
- Water plays an important role in plants growth and development.
- Water also plays an important role in photosynthesis process of plants.
- Water affect Respiration rate.
- Water also affects the transpiration rate.
- Water helps plants to take up nutrients from the soil.
- Water also activates the germination of seeds.
- Water plays an important role in vegetative growth and reproductive growth of plants.
- All metabolism and chemical reaction of plants seed water.
Ecological Importance –
- water helps to maintain soil moisture
- Water helps to maintain soil temperature.
- Water reduces alkalinity / basicity in soil.
- Water helps essential / beneficial microbes to grow.
- Water also influences the pest and disease growth in the field.
Three phases of water occurs in water cycle or Hydro-logical cycle-
- Solid Phase
- Liquid phase
- Gaseous Phase
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Soil physical Property influencing irrigation OR, Physical Properties of soil that affect / influences irrigation-
Soil has 3 phases –
- At solid Phase = Soil is made of minerals, Rocks, organic matter and other chemical compounds
- At liquid Phase= It is known as soil moisture
- At Gaseous phase= It is known as soil air
Soil property that affect irrigation-
- Infiltration characteristics of soil.
- Water holding capacity of soil.
Some other soil properties that affect Irrigation–
- Soil Texture
- Soil Structure
- Capillary action
- Soil profile
- depth of water table
Water relations of soil OR, Soil water relationship
Soil is a three dimensional natural body which is made up of mainly five Component –
- Organic matter
- Living organisms
The word soil is originated from the Latin word “Solum”. Solum means layer or floor. Soil has mainly five layers or horizon .that is – O, A, B, C and R horizon.
Soil provides minerals, salt, essential nutrients to plants for their growth. Soil provides the shelter to many beneficial micro- organisms that is beneficial to crops growth. Soil has many properties that are affected by water. Such as chemical reaction, soil pH .soil structure etc.
Water is also known as the liquid gold .the chemical formula of water is H2O.
Chemically, one molecule of water H2O is made up of one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen. Two atom of Hydrogen is attached with one atom of oxygen with single bond.
Water is very precious to our life; the plants system contains approx. 90 per cent of water. Water affects photosynthesis, process, Respiration process as well as Transpiration process, Respiration process as well as Transpiration process .water helps plants to take up nutrients from soil. Water also activates the germination of weeds .water also affect the soil pH, soil basicity, it maintain Soil moisture and also Soil Temperature.
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It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog ecohillagri.com to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.