soil water and How Soil Water movement occurs inside soil?

Hello Guys! Welcome again my Blog, In this Blog we try to understand about soil water and Movement of Soil Water. This Topic is very important for all types of Competitive exams and Bachelor and Master degree of Agriculture. So read this article carefully-

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Introduction about soil water

Soil Water
Water through irrigation

When water is added to soil with the help of Rain or irrigation, then water molecules are distributed around the soil.

Soil Particles hold or contain water until their pores will be filled. When all pores of soil particles (either large or small) are filled, the soil is said to be saturated (saturated soil) Saturated soil has maximum retentive capacity.

 

Classification of Soil Water

Soil water is classified as 3 types –

  1. Gravitational water
  2. Capillary water
  3. Hygroscopic water.

 

  1. Gravitational water-
  • It is that type of soil water that is not held by soil particle but drains out freely under the influence of gravity.
  • Gravitational water is not available for plants use.
  1. Capillary water –
  • It is that type of soil water that is held by soil particles after the gravitational water is drained off.
  • Capillary water is held by soil particle by surface tension.
  • Capillary water is available for Plants use.
  1. Hygroscopic water –
  • It is that type of soil water that is held tightly to the surface of soil particles with the help of adsorption force.
  • That soil particles which are adsorbed by soil particles.
  • Hygroscopic water is not rarely available for plants use.
  • This water cannot be removed easily from the soil particles.

 

Q. Why Gravitational water is drained off or, Why Gravitational water fall down?

Answer= When water is added to soil, there are two attractive forces occurs.

  1. 1st Adhesive force between soil particles and water molecules .And,
  2. 2nd cohesive force between two water molecules.

The cohesive force makes possible a marked thickness of layer of water.

As the layer gets thicker and thicker the force of gravity act on them, and water flows down word through the pores of soil particles.

So, Gravitational water is drained off or falls down under the influence of gravity or gravitational force

 

Q. Established the Relation between moisture in soil and applied force to extract or remove water from soil.

Answer= both are inversely proportional to each other.

  • Means –greater will be the force is required to removed water, if less moisture is present in the soil.

 

The water that is absorbed by soil is depend upon –

  1. Nature and magnitude of degree of humidity of soil surface.
  2. Nature and magnitude of temperature of soil surface.

 

Movement of water into soil

                    OR,

Soil water movement

When water is added to soil with the help of rain or irrigation, then water move around the soil.

There are five types of movement of water inside soil and their particles .that is – Soil water

  1. Surface Run off
  2. Infiltration
  3. Percolation
  4. Leaching
  5. Seepage

 

Movement of Soil water in two Condition-

  1. Outside the soil or, above surface of soil.
  2. Inside the soil.

 

  1. Surface Run – off:-

The movement of water above the soil surface in the motion of slide is known as surface run – off.

 

  1. Infiltration:-

First entry of water from the soil surface towards inside of soil.

  • Percolation –Downward movement of water from one payer to other layer under the influence of gravity
  • Leaching – The downward movement of organic matter, salts and nutrients with water below the root zone.
  • Seepage –side ward movement of water in the soil.

 

Losses of water during movement inside the soil-

OR, Losses during movement of Soil Water

These three Types of soil water indicates losses of water –

  1. Surface run –off
  2. Leaching
  3. Seepage (e.g. – canal area)

 

Q. Series of soil in Infiltration or percolation

Sandy soil >loam soil > clay soil,

Instrument or devices by which we can measure leaching or percolation is known as lysimeter.

 

Infiltration Rate –

Infiltration rate is the soil characteristics that measure or determine the maximum rate (velocity) of water at which they can enter the soil.

Note—Infiltration rate decreases during Irrigation.

 

Infiltration velocity –

The rate (velocity) at which water enters inside the soil at a given time is called Infiltration velocity.

 

  1. What is the basic diff. between Infiltration rate and Infiltration velocity?
  2. Why Infiltration Rate decreases during Infiltration?
  3. What is basic Infiltration Rate?
  4. What is matric suction and matric suction gradient?
  5. Why Infiltration Rate decreases with Time?

 

Evaluate the following sentence –

The Rate of decrease is rapid initially and the infiltration rate tends to approach a constant value.

 

Factors that affect Infiltration Rate of soil water –

There are some major factors that affect Infiltration Rate of water into the soil, that are –

Factor affecting soil water
Soil Texture
  1. Initial moisture content
  2. Condition of soil surface
  3. Hydraulic conductivity of soil
  4. Soil Texture
  5. Soil Porosity
  6. Degree of swelling of soil colloid.
  7. Degree of swelling of soil organic matter.
  8. Vegetative cover
  9. Duration of Irrigation
  10. Duration of Rainfall.
  11. Viscosity of water.

 

Q.Addition of organic matter increases the Infiltration rate, why?

 

Soil moisture content-

Soil moisture content is the Ratio of mass of water hold in the soil to mass of dry soil.

 

Q. How soil moisture content affect Infiltration rate?

Soil moisture content influences (affect) the initial Infiltration Rate and also influences the total amount of Infiltration.

As soil moisture content increases, Both (Infiltration Rate and total amount of Infiltration) decreases.

 

Q. What is the relation between soil moisture content and infiltration rate?

Soil moisture content is also inversely proportion to total infiltration amount.

 

Q. How soil permeability affect Infiltration Rate?

The soil with slowest permeability (either at surface or below) can decrease the infiltration rate. And soil with highest permeability increases the infiltration rate.

Soil permeability is directly proportional to infiltration rate.

 

Q. How soil porosity affect infiltration Rate of water inside the soil.

Soil porosity will be changed or good with the help of tillage and cultivation .so, cultivation and tillage also influence (affect) the infiltration rate.

Q. How soil texture affect infiltration rate.

 

Q. Relation between soil texture and infiltration Rate

Both are inversely proportional to each other.

AS soil texture becomes heavy, infiltration Rate of water will be decrease (low) and as soil texture become light, infiltration Rate will be increase (high).

 

Q. How vegetative cover or vegetal covers affect infiltration Rate?

Answer = Infiltration Rate is also affected by vegetal cover .Such that infiltration Rate is higher in grassland than uncultivated land.

Q. What is viscosity of water? And how they affect infiltration Rate.

Q. Evaluate this Following sentence –

  • The high rate of infiltration in the tropic under otherwise comparable soil conditions is due to the low viscosity of warm water.

 

 

Some important questions about soil water and Movement of Soil Water–

Q. Why Gravitational water is drained off or, Why Gravitational water fall down?

Q. Established the Relation between moisture in soil and applied force to extract or remove water from soil.

Q. The water that is absorbed by soil is depend upon …………………. .

Q. Define the following-

  • Percolation
  • Leaching
  • Seepage
  • Infiltration
  • Infiltration velocity
  • Infiltration rate
  • Soil moisture content

Q. Write the Series of soil in Infiltration or percolation Process.

Q. What is the basic diff. between Infiltration rate and Infiltration velocity?

Q. Why Infiltration Rate decreases during Infiltration?

Q.What is basic Infiltration Rate?

Q. What is matric suction and matric suction gradient?

Q. Why Infiltration Rate decreases with Time?

Q. Evaluate the following sentence –

  • The Rate of decrease is rapid initially and the infiltration rate tends to approach a constant value.
  •  The high rate of infiltration in the tropic under otherwise comparable soil conditions is due to the low viscosity of warm water.

Q. Write all those Factors that affect Infiltration Rate.

Q. Addition of organic matter increases the Infiltration rate, why?

Q. How soil moisture content affect Infiltration rate?

Q. What is the relation between soil moisture content and infiltration rate?

Q. How soil permeability affect Infiltration Rate?

Q. How soil porosity affect infiltration Rate of water inside the soil?

Q. How soil texture affect infiltration rate?

Q. Write the Relation between soil texture and infiltration Rate.

Q. How vegetative cover or vegetal covers affect infiltration Rate?

Q. What is viscosity of water? And how they affect infiltration Rate?

 

 

 

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It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog ecohillagri.com to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.

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