Introduction about the Soil Pollution
Pollution : Pollution occurs when a Product added to our Natural Environment adversely affects natural ability to dispose it. Pollution refers to that Action which make dirty our Atmosphere, Air, Soil, Water and Wind – they all come under Atmosphere.
And The Soil pollution is defined as the presence of toxic chemicals such as pollutants or contaminants in the soil in high concentrations that a risk to our health and the ecosystem also. These Chemicals comes from Factories and also from our Activities such as Vehicles and uses of polythene, etc.
TODAY THE SOIL POLLUTION IS A DANGER and SERIOUS ISSUE.
Types Of the Soil Pollution-
1. Agriculture Soil Pollution –
- Pollution of Surface soil.
- Pollution of Underground Soil.
2. The Soil Pollution by Industrial Solid and Liquid Waste-
- Pollution Of Surface soil.
- Disturbance in Soil Profile.
3. Pollution due to Urban Activity-
- Pollution of Surface soil.
- Pollution of Underground Soil.
Sources of the Soil pollution-
There are mainly four sources that may cause the soil pollution, that is-
1. Agro chemical = Agro chemicals are the Primary Source that caused soil pollution. Agro chemicals are that chemicals which are used in Agricultural Sector. All chemicals are used in Farm by farmers. some Agro chemicals are chemical Fertilizer, Pesticides, Insecticides, Herbicides and weedicides, etc.
2. Industrial Waste = Industrial Waste are the Source that also caused the soil pollution. Industrial Wastes are that wastes which are produced by many Industries and factories, some Industrial Wastes are Radioactive materials and heavy metals and Dust or solid waste also.
3. Urban Waste = Urban Waste are that waste which is produced by Urban or town area by us, some Urban Waste are municipal sewage and vehicular exhaust.
4. Rural Waste = Rural Waste are that waste which may also cause soil pollution. These Wastes are spread by village or rural area people, such as Non Biodegradable waste, litter and live stock wastes.
Causes for Soil Pollution-
There are many causes that spread out the soil pollution, Due to these Pollution Cause; The fertility power of soil may decreased and properties of soil be change. Some Causes are following-
- Indiscriminate use of Chemical Fertilizers.
- Indiscriminate use of Chemical Pesticides, Herbicides and Insecticides, etc.
- Excess Deforestation and Soil Erosion.
- Polluted water and wastes produces from Factories and industry.
- Leaching of Non Bio degradable pollutants such as – chemicals, plastics, etc.
- Sewage Discharged into Rivers instead of being treated Properly.
- Septic Tank Seepage.
Note = The main cause for the soil pollution are the biological agents and human activities also.
Effects due to Soil Pollution-
(1). Effect on Agriculture-
- Reduced Soil fertility.
- Reduced Nitrogen Fixation and all important Natural cycle.
- Reduced Crop Yield.
- Decrease the microbial Activity.
- Also Decreased the Metabolic Power.
(2). Effects on Industry-
- Reduced Vegetation.
- Increase Salinity.
- Release of Pollutant Gasses.
- Not reach Proper Raw materials.
- Ecological Imbalance may be possible.
(3). Effects on Urban Society-
- Public Health Problem.
- Drinking Water is Polluted.
- Waste Management Problems.
- Clogging Of drains.
- Foul Smell.
(4). Effects on Other Sectors-
- Pollution runs off into Rivers and Kills Fishes, Plants and other Aquatic Animals.
- Crops and Fruits be Poisoness and polluted because of growing in polluted soil.
- Children Play in Poisoness Area.
Note = Soil pollution mainly caused of two things, i.e. – pollutants and contaminants
Basically Pollutants are that toxic materials that may cause the pollution. And soil Pollutant are those kind of Pollutants that cause soil pollution. The Soil Pollutant may be Toxic or may not. Here Toxic means Chemicals. Sometimes, Soil pollutant spread over the soil by Pollutant agent. And sometimes Heavy metals also polluted our Soil, Such as Lead, copper, Zinc, Nickel and Mercury, etc. They may be caused by mining, incineration of coal, alkali and metal processing in the soil.
Types of Soil Pollutants –
(1). Natural Soil Pollutant = Soil Pollution caused by Natural activities, It is not so harmful like man made pollutants. Such as some reactions and micro organisms that may cause soil pollution.
(2). Man- made Soil Pollutant = Soil Pollution caused by Human activities, It is so harmful than Natural soil pollutants. Such as release of toxic chemicals and Heavy metals from Industries and factory cause soil Pollution. And Many Non Bio degradable Wastes spread by us, that also cause the soil pollution. such as Polythene, Glasses, Plastics, etc.
Control of the Soil Pollution
Today Our Earth become 80 Percent Poisoness that affects us and our life. so it is necessary to control the soil pollution, And There some steps are given, By Applying this we can control Soil pollution from our earth-
(1). Reducing chemical fertilizer and pesticides use = Applying Bio Fertilizer, Organic Fertilizers and manures instead of Chemical fertilizers, pesticides and Weedicides use may also reduce.
(2). Reusing of Materials = Materials Such as Glass containers, Plastic Bags, Paper, Clothes and other Non bio degradable things be reused at domestic level.
Non Bio degradable materials are not decomposed into the soil that’s why soil may polluted by these Non Bio degradable materials so we should be reused these Non Bio degradable materials.
(3). Recycling and Recovery of Materials = Recycling and Recovery is a reasonable solution for reducing soil pollution. Materials such as Paper, Some kinds of Plastics and glass can be recycled and use again. This decrease the pollution in Soil.
(4). Reforesting = Soil Pollution is also occurring due to soil erosion and loss of land. This can be reduced by the help of conserving our forest and planting new trees.
(5). Solid Waste Treatment = This Method should be adopted for management of solid waste disposal. Industrial solid wastes can be treated Physically, chemically and biologically until they are less hazardous.
- Acidic and Alkaline waste should be first neutralized, then the insoluble materials (if Bio degradable) should be degrade under controlled conditions.
Please visit this site of The World Bank ( https://www.worldbank.org/en/programs/pollution-management-and-environmental-health-program )and help them to reduce the Pollution level and develop our country.
- SOIL : Found in India
- Soil Science
- Soil Science Model Paper 1
- Horticulture Model paper 1
- Weeds Management model paper 1
- ICAR model Question Paper 1: Agriculture
It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog ecohillagri.com to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.