- 1 Overview about Vegetables and Vegetable market-
- 2 Classification Of Vegetables
- 3 Cultivation Practices of Vegetables
- 4 Vegetable Harvesting and Vegetable Market
Overview about Vegetables and Vegetable market-
The vegetables are any part of the herbaceous plants that is generally used after cooking as a Basic part of our food. Vegetables are the parts of plant that are utilized by humans and also by other animals as a food materials. And we can sell our own produced Vegetables in National Vegetable market or International Vegetable market and export them also.
One Important Terminology comes under this Subject, i.e., Olericulture. Generally, Olericulture is the science in Which we deals with the study of Vegetables and their Cultivation. Further The term Olericulture is derived from the two words that is (1). Oleris which means Potherb and (2).Cultra which means cultivation. Hence, Olericulture means the cultivation of potherb. In the present days, the meaning of Olericulture become changed and indicates the cultivation of vegetable. such as cultivation of Lady Finger, onion, Tomato, potatoes, etc. In Olericulture, we also learn about the Botanical Classification of Vegetables and At the end we study about vegetable market where we can sell our Products.
The Eating Parts of Vegetables are their body Parts like Flowers, Stems, Leaves, Roots,Seeds and Fruits, etc.
|PARTS OF VEGETABLE THAT WE CAN EAT||THEIR EXAMPLES|
|Stems||Green Leafy Vegetables, Celery|
|Leaf||Turnip, Green Leafy Vegetables|
|Root||Radish, Carrot, Turnip|
|Seeds||Pes, Beans, Cucumber|
|Fruits (Bulb)||Pumpkin, Bitter gourd, Cucumber|
Vegetable includes that food also which are derived from some Plants such as Fruits, Flowers, Nuts, and Cereals grains, etc.
Vegetables can be eaten in Both way, i.e., Either Raw or Cooked. And It also Plays a surprising Role in Human as well as Animal’s Nutrition. because Approx all vegetables are Full of many types of vitamins, minerals, Carbohydrates, Fibers and other Elements such as Iron, Potassium, Calcium and Phosphorus, etc. These all are essential for our proper Growth.
In Different Region of India, People utilize different Parts of Same vegetable. For example – In North Indian Region, People utilize only flowers of cauliflower not utilize its leaf But in West Bengal Side, People also eat both flower and leaf of Cauliflower.
In Science, We Know about vegetable with their Botanical Classification ( Botanical Classification) not by their common Name. such as During Study of Science, we call Allium cepa for Onion.
So, Some Botanical Classification of common Vegetables with their common name are listed below-
|COMMON NAME||BOTANICAL NAME||FAMILY|
|Cabbage||Brassica oleracea var. capitata||Brassicaceae|
|Cauliflower||Brassica oleracea var. botrytis||Brassicaceae|
|Beet root||Beta Valguris||Amaranthaceae|
|Turnip||Brassica rapa subsp. rapa||Brassicaceae|
Classification Of Vegetables
Further Vegetables are Classified into Six Types-
(1). Botanical classification-
|COMMON NAME||BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION||FAMILY||Ch. No.|
|Beet root||Beta Valguris||Amaranthaceae||18|
|Cauliflower||Brassica oleracea var. botrytis||Brassicaceae||18|
|Turnip||Brassica rapa subsp. rapa||Brassicaceae||20|
|Cabbage||Brassica oleracea var. capitata||Brassicaceae||18|
(2). On the Basis of rate of Respiration-
Vegetable is of 2 types:
- Climacteric Vegetable = Tomato, Watermelon
- Non Climacteric vegetable = Cucumber
(3). On the Basis of Isolation Distance-
Vegetable is of 3 types:
- Self Pollinated = Tomato, Beans and Pea
- Cross Pollinated = other rest
- Often Cross Pollinated = okra and chili
(4). On the Basis of Aroma containing compound-
Vegetable is of several types:
- Nonadienal = cucumber
- Di methyl pyrazine = potato
- Iso thiocynate = Radish
- Allyl Propyl disulphide = Onion
- Di allyl disulphide = Garlic
(5). On the Basis of Photoperiod-
Vegetable is of 3 types:
- Long Day Plant = Potato, Onion, Cabbage.
- Short Day Plant = Bean and Sweet Potato.
- Day Neutral Plant = Tomato, Cow pea and Chili.
(6). On the Basis of Methods of sowing-
Vegetable is of 2 types:
- Direct Seedling = Carrot, Radish and Beans.
- Transplanted = Cauliflower, Brinjal, Chili.
Cultivation Practices of Vegetables
Vegetables are full of many types of minerals, vitamins, fibers and carbohydrate also. so, vegetables become an important part of Human’s Daily Diet, it means Human take in vegetable as their meal Daily. Some Vegetable are used to make several delicious foods (meals) for their unique Flavors, taste and Nutrients component which are good for our Health.
According to their Life cycle; Vegetable is of 3 types-
- Biennial, and
Some vegetables are Perennial but mostly are Annual and Biennial. so, Annual and Biennial vegetable usually sown and harvested within a year. As we know that India contains various types of soil such as- Red Soil, Black Soil, Alluvial, Laterite and so on. [ All are describe in SOIL : Found in India]. Different vegetable suit different soil. but usually, Sandy soils are suitable for early Vegetable.
Procedure Of Cultivation –
Approx all vegetable is cultivated in Same Pattern-
- First of all, Preparation Of Our Land with Proper Aeration and Tillage.
- Removing Of Weeds.
- Spread or Broadcast Organic manure or Fertilizer.
- Sowing of Seeds or Planting Young Tree.
- Further Irrigate With Suitable amount Of Water.
Transplanting or Seedling –
As we know that vegetable are grown over the field. Among them some growing after direct sowing but some grow after Transplanting. Such as-
- Example of Sowing = Apple Gourd; Pea; Radish; Bitter gourd; Carrot and cucumber, etc.
- Example of Transplanted = Capsicum; Cabbage; Broccoli; onion; Tomato; Cauliflower, etc.
Lets Discuss about the sowing time, Sowing Distance and Depth of Some vegetables which are enlisted Below-
|COMMON NAME||SOWING TIME||SOWING DISTANCE||SOWING DEPTH|
|Seed to Seed||Row to Row|
|Beet Root||October to November||4 inches||18 inches||1 inches|
|Bitter Gourd||February to march||1 ft.||4 ft.||0.5 inches|
|Bottle Gourd||February to march||1 ft.||4 ft.||1 to 2 inches|
|Broccoli||August to September||1 ft.||1.5 ft.||1.5 inches|
|Cabbage||September to November||1 ft.||1.5 ft.||0.25 inches|
|Carrot||August to September||2 inches||1.5 ft.||0.25 inches|
|Cucumber||February to march||12 inches||12 inches||0.5 inches|
|Beans||February to march||8 inches||18 inches||1 to 1.5 inches|
|Okra||February to march||12 inches||18 inches||0.5 inches|
|Onion||May to june||4 ft.||6 ft.||0.25 inches|
|Pea||September to November||4 inches||12 inches||1 inches|
|Spinach||September to November||3 inches||9 inches||0.5 inches|
|Tomato||June to August||1 ft.||2.5 ft.||0.25 inches|
|Early Cauliflower||Mid June||2 ft.||2 ft.||0.5 inches|
|Late Cauliflower||August to October||2 ft||2 ft.||0.5 inches|
Seed Rate of Some Vegetable –
|VEGETABLE NAME||SEED RATE|
|Potato||20 to 25 Q/ha|
|Chili||1 to 1.5 kg/ha|
|Tomato||400 to 500 g/ha|
|Carrot||5 to 6 kg/ha|
|Cabbage||Early = 500 to 600 g/ha ; Late = 375 to 500 g/ha|
|Cauliflower||Early = 500 to 600 g/ha ; Late = 350 to 400 g/ha|
|Onion||Rabi = 10 to 12 kg/ha; Kharif= 12 to 15 kg/ha|
|Okra||18 to 22 kg/ha|
|Turnip||3 to 4 kg/ha|
|Cucumber||2.5 to 3.5 kg/ha|
|Bottle Gourd||3 to 4 kg/ha|
|Bitter Gourd||4 to 5.5 kg/ha|
|Pumpkin||5 to 6 kg/ha|
|Spinach||37 to 45 kg/ha|
|Beet Root||7.5 to 8 kg/ha|
Fertilizerb and Manure does –
Basically, Fertilizers are chemically prepared and they are toxic to plant’s health, While Manure may be friendly for Plant’s health. Fertilizers may be Organic or Inorganic.
Inorganic fertilizers are those fertilizers that are made from non-living materials such as chemicals. Some Inorganic fertilizers also contain nutrients that can be taken up by the plants. When we choose an inorganic fertilizer for our garden, we will notice there are commonly used elements are the NPK ratio. where N shows the percentage of nitrogen, P indicates the percentage of phosphorus, and the last letter K shows the amount of potassium in the fertilizer. Most vegetables require the balanced fertilizer, such as some required additional potassium while leafy green vegetables require mostly nitrogen.
Organic fertilizers are those fertilizers that are made from living materials or Carbon containing materials. Fertilizing vegetable with organic fertilizer doesn’t harm our environment, because their components are derived from the plants and animals.
Manures are the common organic fertilizer. Manures are eco-friendly. For instance, many gardeners supply organic compost or manure over the soil with the using fish emulsion or manure tea, which are also perform like organic manure. Fish emulsion is rich in nitrogen but low in phosphorus. It is sprinkled around the plants every 2-3 weeks. Another vegetable garden fertilizer option is to add nitrogen rich organic fertilizer over the field. As we irrigated, the roots of vegetable absorb the nutrients from the fertilizer.
Nursery Management –
Nursery is that Place where Plants are grown until they become mature and ready for transplanting in the Field. Basically Nursery are of 2 Types-
- Permanent Nursery = In this Nursery, we can produces plants continuously.
- Temporary Nursery = In this Nursery, we fulfill the requirement of season of a Targeted Project.
- Better consumption of land.
- In very small land, may produce a lot of young Plants.
- Ensure optimum utilization of Inputs such as water, nutrients, etc.
- off season plant also be produced.
- Easily maintenance.
- No any Technical Skills are required.
Component of Nursery- Nursery have basically 4 components, i.e.,
- Selection of location for raising of Nursery.
- Selection of Highly Germinated seed.
- Sowing, and
- After Care.
Note = In some vegetable market, Nursery Plants also be selled.
Physiological and Nutritional Disorder in Vegetable –
It is important to learn about disorders in Vegetable to become an expert for identification of nutrient and physiological disorder. because sometimes we become confused between these disorder’s symptoms and disease problems. When vegetable is suffering from nutrient or physiological disorders, vegetable exhibits disease-like symptoms; so nutrient disorders are sometimes mistaken as disease.
Nutrient or physiological disorders are caused by a lack of nutrients in plants, or the presence of toxic nutrients. They affect the functioning of the plant system. Nutrient disorders cause deduction in crops yield.
During physiological disorders, the physical structure of Plants be changed. Variation in Soil Ph may cause Nutrient or physiological disorders in Plants because it has an effect on the availability of plant nutrients. so,testing and correcting of soil pH is important for proper growth in plants because it has an effect on the availability of plant nutrients.
Some Symptoms in Plants After a lack of Nutrients or After Nutrient or physiological disorders-
- Poor germination,
- leaves may be dull,
- oldest leaves may turn yellow and drop,
- Reduction in Yield,
- Poor plant growth,
- The size of fruit become small, and so on.
As we will know about disorder in veggies, it helps us in vegetable market to earn more income.
In Agriculture, Storage defined as the space that is available for storing Agricultural Products after Harvesting, in particular warehouse. During the storage period A large amount of vegetables are lost after harvesting. These losses may be thirty to fifty percent in that countries where storage facilities are not available. The main causes of loss is moisture, micro-organisms, other animals and vermin, etc.
Further Storage may be divided as short-term Storage or long-term Storage .Most vegetables are in short-term storage for marketing. During storage, leafy vegetables losses moisture, and the Vitamin C from them. Some products that do not spoilage fastly and having better keeping qualities, such as potatoes and onions they can be sold when higher prices may be available.
Safe any Vegetable from Fast Spoilage, we can use Refrigerated Storage. If refrigerated storage is not available, the priority for most crops is to store in that place that maintain high humidity level, and keep that products into shade. Before storage, It is needed to remove damaged Products and select the products according to its quality, size, and color.
After Storage of veggies, people who interested to sell their produces; they visit vegetable Market near their Destiny for selling.
Vegetable Harvesting and Vegetable Market
Vegetables are cultivated into Fields and Harvesting is the last method to cut off that vegetable from its source of water and nourishment after completely mature.The harvesting process should be done for bruising to the crop.
Ratooning is also one of the best methods harvesting of mature crops. In Ratooning, only cut off the above portion of crops from Ground level and leave their Roots for Further grow in next Season, The best Example of Ratooning is The Cultivation Of Sugarcane.
Generally, Market is that Place where Buyer buy some goods by Seller who sell that goods with spent some Money. Market consists of 3 main component i.e.,
- Seller, and
- Goods (products).
In Vegetable Market, Buyer buy vegetables and some agricultural goods by Seller who sell that Agri Products with spent some Money. Vegetable Market consists of 3 main component i.e.,
- Seller, and
- Agriculture products (vegetables).
for more knowledge about Indian Farmer’s Vegetable Market of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables, you may click this video Link [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wi2Mh_r9k6E]
As we know that India produces a surplus amounts of Vegetable that may also exported from India to Foreign. There are some Top Producer Country of vegetable that compete with India in Exporting of Vegetable and in International vegetable Market. some Top 15 Producers that lead in Agricultural Vegetable Market; are-
- United State of America
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- Agricultural Exporting from India : Better option of Income in 2020
- Export Training Of 5 Different Fruits : Best for High Income
- Plants : Overview, Physiology,Types and Nutrients
- Plants Tissue :Description Types Xylem Phloem and Stomata
It is Arpan Priy Das from west champaran, Bihar. Arpan started his blog about agricultural information named as “ECOHILLAGRI.COM ” He started his blog ecohillagri.com to help many agricultural or other students as well as farmers. so, it is necessary for them to learn about agriculture that is useful for students as well as farmers and that all concepts are present in this blog.